Introduction to Pipe sizes and pipe schedule

  1. Introduction

Pipe size calculation is necessary for planning and identifying the pipe to be utilized during project execution. The size of the pipe is determined primarily by

  1. the flow rate required,
  2. the pressure of the piping system, and
  3. the end connection equipment.

Identification of pipe size is vital for transmitting the exact idea from the piping design team to the piping execution team for using the correct pipe size for spool production. Pipe size also has a significant impact on cost. Oversizing a pipe result in additional costs, more complex pipe design, more footing, and, in some cases, process difficulties.

In the field of engineering, there are many and varied materials & types of pipes used, each   with their own unique credentials, and often with their own sizing. This results in some confusion in the industry around the outside diameter of piping, and the sizing of required pipe supports. That is why understanding to pipe sizing is very important.

Pipe size in referred in various terms like – Nominal Diameter (DN), Nominal Pipe Size (NPS), or Nominal Bore (NB). However, despite having certain similarities and variances in terms of their uses and places of origin, these are all notations for pipe sizes.

  1. Pipe sizing

Pipe size is specified with two non-dimensional numbers,

      • Nominal Pipe Size (NPS)
      • Schedule Number (SCH)

And the relationship between these numbers determines the inside diameter of a pipe.

  • Nominal pipe size and its importance


The Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) is a North American standard size for pipes that are suitable for high or low pressures and temperatures. It defines the diameter of pipe. Nominal pipe size only refers to the outside diameter (OD) of a pipe. When it is said that pipe size is 2 NPS, it indicates any pipes with an outer diameter of 2.375-inch (or 60.3 mm), regardless of wall thickness and hence internal diameter.

Nominal pipe sizing

Nominal Bore (NB) and Nominal Diameter (DN) are sometimes used alternately with Nominal Pipe Size (NPS). Nominal Bore (NB) is the European equivalent for NPS. The Nominal Diameter (DN) for NPS 5 and larger is equal to the NPS multiplied by 25.

Pipe size illustration

2.1.1 Nominal diameter (DN): The Nominal Diameter (DN), is frequently referred to as “mean or average outer diameter.” The metric unit system uses nominal diameter, sometimes known as Diameter Nominal (DN). The pipe’s Inner Diameter (ID) and Outer Diameter (OD) are not equal to the nominal diameter.

Although not exactly equal, the value of DN is close to the inner diameter of the pipe. The connecting dimensions of pipes and pipe fittings are denoted using this notation. Pipes come in a variety of DN sizes, and using standard tables and pipe schedule charts, the DN is used to determine the pipe’s final dimensions.

NPS vs DN measurement

2.1.2 Nominal Bore (NB): A European standard for indicating pipe size is Nominal Bore, or NB. In the case of pipes, the terms bore, and nominal refer to hollow structures, respectively. The nominal bore is a rough internal measurement across the diameter of the pipe. In other terms, a nominal bore refers to the pipe’s bore’s approximation in size.

 A pipe is exactly 10.75 inches long when measured in inches; hence, 10.75′′ x 25.4 = 273.05 mm. This is the reason why the outside diameter is not a straightforward number like 250NB.

Pipe Size Indication

  1. What is schedule Number?

The wall thickness of the pipe is described using steel pipe schedules. This crucial variable as it is directly related to the strength of the pipe and the suitability for specific applications.  Given the design pressure and permitted stress, a pipe schedule is a dimensionless number which is derived using the design formula for wall thickness.

Pipe wall thickness is determined by pipe schedule. The mechanical strength of the pipe increases as the wall thickness, allowing it to withstand higher design pressures.

Schedule number = P/S

  • P is the service pressure in (psi)
  • S is the allowable stress in (psi)

Two pipes of the same diameter with different schedules will have different wall thicknesses. So, when specifying a pipe for a high-pressure application, a larger number signifies a larger schedule (wall thickness).

Pipe schedule illustration

The schedule numbers 40 and 80 are the most popular ones. As the schedule number increases, the wall thickness of the pipe increases. Since there has been advancement of industrial age, pipe sizes and their standard has also been changed. There is wide range of wall thicknesses: SCH 5, 5S, 10, 10S, 20, 30, 40, 40S, 60, 80, 80S, 100, 120, 140, 160, Standard (STD), Extra Strong (XS) AND Double Extra Strong (XXS).

Steel pipe schedules are a way to specify the pipe’s wall thickness. This is an important metric since it is directly related to the pipe’s strength and applicability for various applications. A pipe schedule is a dimensionless number that is calculated using the design formula for wall thickness and the permissible stress.

4.  Conclusion

Pipe sizing is one of the first important actions a process engineer performs throughout the P&ID preparation process.  Pipe size is a key consideration in a well-designed process. It will have an impact on fluid velocity, pressure drop, flow regime, and so on. A poorly sized pipe can disrupt the entire process and, in extreme situations, lead to plant shutdown That is why one should always know about the differences between Nominal pipe sizes and pipe schedule numbers.

5.  Reference

Single Line Diagram (SLD)

1. Introduction

Single-line diagram (SLD) is also known as a one-line diagram. It is a high-level diagram that shows how incoming power is distributed to the equipment. It is the first step in preparing a critical response plan, allowing you to become thoroughly familiar with the electrical transmission system layout and design.

The single-line diagram also becomes your lifeline of information when updating or responding to an emergency. An accurate single-line diagram ensures optimum system performance and coordination for all future testing and can highlight potential risks before a problem occurs.

An effective single-line diagram will clearly show how the main components of the electrical system are connected, including redundant equipment and available spares. It shows a correct power distribution path from the incoming power source to each downstream load – including the ratings and sizes of each piece of electrical equipment, their circuit conductors, and their protective devices.

Whether you have a new or existing facility, the single-line diagram is the vital roadmap for all future testing, service, and maintenance activities. As such, the single-line diagram is like a balance sheet for your facility and provides a snapshot of your facility at a moment in time.

2. Scope of SLD

To give you an accurate picture of your electrical system, the single-line diagram information normally includes:

    1. Incoming lines (voltage and size)
    2. Incoming main fuses, potheads, cutouts, switches, and main/tiebreakers
    3. Power transformers (rating, winding connection, and grounding means)
    4. Feeder breakers and fused switches
    5. Relays (function, use, and type)
    6. Current/potential transformers (size, type, and ratio)
    7. Control transformers
    8. All main cable and wire run with their associated isolating switches and potheads (size and length of run)
    9. All substations, including integral relays and main panels and the exact nature of the load in each feeder and on each substation
    10. Critical equipment voltage and size (UPS, battery, generator, power distribution, transfer switch, computer room air conditioning)

3. Uses & Significance

Single-line diagrams are used by several trades including Electrical, Mechanical, HVAC, and plumbing, but the electrical one-line diagram is the most common. HVAC and plumbing riser diagrams are essentially one-line diagrams, but they go by different names.

An electrical single-line diagram is a representation of a complicated electrical distribution system into a simplified description using a single line, which represents the conductors, to connect the components. Main components such as transformers, switches, and breakers are indicated by their standard graphic symbol. The overall diagram provides information on how the components connect and how the power flows through the system.

4. Flow Diagram of SLD

Few parameters are considered while designing the flow of a single-line diagram to keep it simple & readable:

    1. Remember to use a single line to represent multiple conductors.
    2. Diagrams should start at the top of the page with the incoming source of a system’s power.
    3. Electrical symbols must be used while drawing the single-line diagram to make it simple & concise.
    4. No physical location or size representation is required of the electrical equipment only ratings and breakers sizes with the other equipment to be used should be written.

5. Designing of SLD

To Design a single-line diagrams for your facility Some steps need to be taken:

    1. Create an inventory of all the utilities & equipment used in the building.
    2. Verify its existence and that they are adequately available.
    3. Confirm loads are connected to emergency/standby feeders.
    4. Verify potential single points of failure.
    5. Evaluate design redundancy of critical systems
    6. Make a report that outlines the findings by site along with recommended actions.
    7. Provide a copy of the single-line electrical diagram in AutoCAD format
    8. An up-to-date single-line diagram is vital for a variety of service activities including:
    9. Short circuit calculations, Coordination studies, Load flow studies, Safety evaluation studies, All other engineering Studies, Electrical safety procedures & Efficient maintenance, etc.

6. Calculations Requirements for SLD

6.1.     Identify the appropriate symbols:

To draw and understand a single-line diagram you first need to be familiar with the electrical symbols. This chart shows the most frequently used symbols. For electric power networks, an appropriate selection of graphic symbols is the most important step.

6.2.    Draw the required system:

To draw the electrical single line diagram first we need all the information on electrical equipment and the supply of receiving power. The most important information to include is:

          • Incoming service voltage
          • Equipment rated current
          • Identification of names of equipment
          • Bus voltage, frequency, phases, and short circuit current withstand ratings
          • Cable sizes, runs of cables, and lengths
          • Transformer connection type, kVA, voltages, and impedance
          • Generator voltage and kW
          • Motor HP
          • Current and Voltage ratios of instrument transformers
          • Relay device numbers

6.3.    Related calculations:

To represent the three-phase system in a single line diagram various other cal. are required:

          • Calculation Of generator reactance
          • Calculation Of transformer reactance
          • Calculation Of transmission-line reactance
          • Calculation Of reactance of motors and other equipment etc.

7. Software’s used 

7.1 AutoCAD

AutoCAD Electrical has a schematic library and a single line diagram sub-library. This enables the user to place two different representations down of the same component.

7.2 ETAP

ETAP Single-Line Diagram / View is an intelligent user interface to model, validate, visualize, analyze, monitor, and manage electrical power systems, from high to low voltage AC and DC networks.

7.3 Eco-dial

It is a low voltage electrical installation design software developed by Schneider Electric. it is a user-friendly software that helps you optimize equipment and costs while managing operating specifications, all along with the design of your power distribution projects.

7.4 Microsoft Visio

Visio Professional or Visio Plan 2 are used to create electrical and electronic schematic diagrams.


8. Benefits of SLD:

    • Help identify fault locations which identify when to perform troubleshooting & simplify troubleshooting
    • Identify potential sources of electric energy during the distribution process.
    • Accurate single line diagram will further ensure the safety of personnel work
    • Meets compliance with applicable regulations and standards
    • Ensure safe, reliable operation of the facility

9. Reference:


Butter Manufacturing Equipment

  1. Introduction

Butter is a dairy product made from the fat and protein components of churned cream. It is semi-solid at cold room temperature. Butter can taste different, ranSalt, and yellow to white solid. Butter manufacturing involves types of equipment like – Pasteurizer, Separator, Butter Continuous Making Machine, Butter Storage Tank, Butter Balance Tank, Butter Churn, Butter Trolley, etc.

The below table depicts the composition of Butter

  1. Principle of Butter Making

The process of butter making is principally an inversion of the fat-in water type emulsion of cream to the water-in fat type of emulsion in butter. Butter systems are different types.


  • Traditional batch Method – Churning from 25-35% milkfat cream.
  • Continuous floatation – Churning from 30-50% milk-fat cream
  • Concentration process – Plastic cream of 82% milk-fat is separated from 35%

milkfat cream at 55°C and this oil-in-water emulsion is inverted to water-in

oil emulsion butter with no further draining of buttermilk.


  1. Requirement of Hygienic Equipment

Materials of construction. Materials used for the construction of a food processing plant must full fill certain specific requirements for Surface roughness. Cleaning is defined as the removal of product residues and foreign material. It is required for hygienic, technical.


  • All equipment should be non-corrosive, made from food-grade materials that do not impart any toxic substance to food.
  • No equipment and containers made up of iron or galvanized iron are to be used in food handling, preparation, and storage.
  • Equipment to be suitably designed and placed to permit ease.
  • A food establishment shall be located away from environmental pollution and industrial activities that produce obnoxious odor, fumes, smoke, chemical or biological emissions, and pollutants that may pause the threat of contaminating food.
  • The surroundings shall be clean, free from infestation of pests, wastes- solid or liquid
  • Manufacturing premises should not have direct access to any residential premises/area


  1. Process Flow Sheet



  1. Butter Manufacturing Process equipment

5.1. Raw Milk Silo Tank

Stainless Steel Tanks are used for storing the milk at 4 Deg. C for long durations. The tank provided insulation in the outer jacket. The milk inlet should be non-foaming type at the top.

5.2. Centrifugal Pump for Transfer Milk

A Centrifugal pump is a mechanical device. Design to move fluid using the transfer rotational energy from one to more driven rotors. The pump transfers liquid form is called a centrifugal pump.

5.3. Milk Pasteurizer

Milk pasteurization is the process of heating the milk to a pre-determined temperature for a specified period without re-contamination during the process. Heating milk to 71.7°C for 15 seconds to kill Coxiella. The milk to between 72°C to 74°C for 15 to 20 seconds.


5.4. Cream Separator

Cream Separator Machine for separating and removing cream from milk. Its centrifugal operation process is two-phase since skim milk and milk with no butterfat cream.

5.5. Cream Balance Tank

The cream Balance tank keeps the product at a constant level above the pump inlet. The balance used some product storage.

5.6. Cream Chiller

A cream Chiller is a mechanical device for chilling the product. Before further processing or storage to prevent microbial growth. The cream is chilled to around 4ᵒc chiller using a plate.

5.7. Cream Pasteurizer

The cream pasteurizer in Heating and Cooling arrangement for cream pasteurizer. Pasteurized cream has comparatively more shelf life due to a reduction in microbial load. Pasteurizer internal components like – Steam control valves, Manual valves, Electrical panel, PLC-based system, Holding tube, etc.

5.8. Cream Storage Tank

Cream storage tank used for the Pasteurizer Cream 4℃ temperature for a butter churn. These tanks often have conical bottoms are cooled using a dimple jacket & are completely insulated.

5.9. Butter Churn

A device used to convert cream into butter. This is done through a mechanical process is called butter churn. The pole is inserted through the lid of the churn, or via a crank used to turn a rotating device inside the churn. Butter Churn rotator shaft with the electrical motor gearbox.

5.10. Butter Trolley

Butter Trolleys are used for the transportation of butter from one section to the other section is called butter trolleys.

5.11. Continuous Butter Making Machine

Butter Continuous making machine is a new technology. CBM machine proper mixing of cream and convert to butter. Cream storage tank to flow via a balance tank and is fed using a positive displacement pump to the rear of the primary churning section. Fill the butter continuous making machine. The residence time for cream in the section is only 1- 2 min very short time.


5.12. Butter Cutting Machine

Butter cutting Butter block cutting M/C is designed to cut butter blocks into small pieces before homogenizing, re-packaging processes.

5.13. Butter Packing Machine

The butter wrapping machine is designed for filling and wrapping butter etc. into Al. foil, parchment paper, or ecocline (with memory).

5.14. Butter Cold Room

Butter cold room temperature required – 18 Degree. for storage till intended use or dispatch. During dispatch, it is still kept at -20 to – 18 Deg. C

  1. P & I Diagram for Butter Manufacturing Equipment

    1. Reference



Shelf life study of spices 

1. Introduction

Spices are seed, fruit ,bark or leaves that are used for colouring and for flavouring purposes. Spices are available in the form of Raw, whole & pre-ground forms. Spices are used according to convenience purpose. Some spices are used for rituals & medicinal purpose .From the olden times people have been noticed to that spices help to boost immunity . And they  have health benefits In reducing  such as inflammatory, cancer and cardio vascular diseases etc. Due to good health benefits the spices are sold expensive. The population has increased drastically and of course it resulted in  increasing consumption , production & storage of spices.

Shelf life can be defined as the period of time where the product is safe and good for consumption  after the packaging  .The shelf life depends on the type of the product for example some products can be expired within a week and some may stay upto 2 -3 years.

2.Why shelf-life is importance?

Shelf life study of products varies on the type of the food product .During the shelf  life span, the food product  should remain safe .The manufacturing date and expiry date is mentioned on every packaged product .

Based on that the consumer will decide .If the food is spoiled before the expiry date ,it indicates that there is contaminated during processing such kind of products are been recalled by company. Based on the shelf life of product the consumers use food product .Shelf life is important factor because it indicate safe consumption of the food product. Its not that after the expiry date the product is totally spoiled or make you sick ,the quality, the flavour and texture of the product starts deteriorating .These does not give the required mouthfeel that we expect.

 3 . How to know spices went bad?

On traditional sense ,spices doesn’t expire when stored properly but the flavour and aroma are decreased . To know the whole spices are good we can sense it by smelling or crushing the spices . If the flavour does not give the proper aromatic feel then it is time to replace the spices with fresh ones .And if the spices are kept in humid area there may be chances of early spoilage because due to moisture there will be mould growth that causes odd flavours. When spices are not kept properly they are attacked by insects and other organisms that causes decrease in shelf life and by making them unfit for consumption.

4. Factors influencing shelf life of the spices.

There are  two factors that influence shelf life of spices during storage period. They are Intrinsic and Extrinsic factors-

      • Intrinsic factors : Factors that are inborn within the food and can not be controlled. The intrinsic factors are moisture content, water activity, sugar content, pH, salt content, nutrient content, and oxidation potential.
      • Extrinsic factors are the factors that can be controlled or changed .The extrinsic factors are Modified Atmospheric Packaging (MAP) and packaging materials, temperature, time, chemical preservatives, processing methods.

5.  Major issues/Defects in spices:

The defects in spices are Defects in these products may be grouped as :

      • Damaged due to insect infestation- The spices are contaminated by insects in the farm, while harvesting and during storage. The insect pests include, coleoptera, lepidopetra, hemipetra  The examples of insect infestation ranges from excreta, frass, evidence  of surface feeding and webbing.
      • contamination by animals-Bird droppings and other animals feces are found.
      • Mould development-The spices are attacked in the farm or while storage .Fungi easily attack the spices in linited moisture conditions.
      • Contamination by extraneous material- Contamination by stones, cigarette butts ,stones during processing  and storage conditions.

6. How to store spices for maximum shelf-life?

The shelf life of the spices depend on the form of the product .For example the powdered or ground spices can be stored upto 1 year ,whereas the whole spices can be stored up to 3years.

      • Basic way to increase the shelf life of spices by minimizing the contact or exposure to sunlight, heat, moisture, air. These can minimize the spoilage.
      • Spices should be packed in tightly sealed containers & non porous containers .The best option to store in ceramic& glass containers because they prevent air & moisture that will increase shelf life of spices.
      • Although the popular used item is plastic container ,but they are not perfectly air tight ,and plastic containers are difficult to clean because they absorb colors  & odor.
      • Other viable options are tin and stainless steel . It is important that these containers are to be stored away from heat because they are heat conductive .
      • Spices like chilli and pepper retain colour if longer kept under refrigerated conditions.

      • If there is any spice that is damaged should be removed quickly in order to prevent the spoilage of other spices.
      • While removing the spices from containers they should be removed with any dry utensils in order to prevent moisture that cause mould growth.
      • For traditional packaging of spices, jute bags are used or depending on the value of the spices, A twill, DW and B twill gunny bags are used .And for better protection of the product double jute bags ,multiwall paper sacks ,or paper bags are used , but these can absorb moisture from the environment .So in such situation, HDPE,PP Woven sacks or polyethylene lined jute bags are advised for use.
      • For ground spices the packaging materials used are PP woven, HDPE ,multiwall paper bags, lined textile sacks  ,glass or metal containers .

7. Legal requirements :

The major clause, in accordance with the new guidelines, states that no food item will be permitted unless it has a 60 percent shelf life remaining after customs clearance. The Food Safety and Standards (Import) Regulations, 2016, will take effect once they are published in the Official Gazette, according to the FSSAI.

Food items with less than 60 percent of their shelf life left at the time of clearing will not be cleared from the customs area

8. References :

Control System in Food Industry

  1. Introduction:

A control system manages, commands directs, or regulates the behavior of other devices or systems using control loops. It can range from a single home heating controller using a thermostat controlling a domestic boiler to large industrial control systems which are used for controlling processes or machines.

It is one fully integrated system that provides the synchronization of all applications and devices involved in the manufacturing process. This allows for the successful merging of information flow from the distributed control system (DCS) and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems so that it is available in one interface in real-time. And one of the best means of unifying these communications is by using a single industrial software system.

In the food industry control system is a means of computerizing best practices within a food & beverage factory, restaurant, or catering operations. It gives managers a better idea of the flow of food processing as food processors are becoming increasingly aware of the power of data-driven insights to optimize their use of raw materials, enhance food quality and safety, and guarantee traceability and support for continuous improvement.

It also helps industry owners to introduce the same financial rigor to dining establishments or catering companies that make manufacturing operations more effective. At the sharp end, it provides the food industry with a more structured way of planning operation, considering nutritional and financial considerations.

  1. Objective:

The main objective to implement control system in the food industry is to improve the economics of the process by achieving the following objectives:

  • Reduce variation in the product quality, achieve more consistent production and maximize yield,
  • Ensure process and product safety,
  • Reduce manpower and enhance operator productivity,
  • Reduce waste and
  • Optimize energy efficiency

The Control system becomes essential nowadays as both consumers and regulatory bodies demand complete transparency and the highest food quality. They want to understand every step of a product’s journey: where all its ingredients came from, how it was made, its nutritional value, and if it was ethically sourced. Therefore, it’s essential to have a digital control system that records & provides feedback on every step of a product’s journey.

  1. Types Of Control Systems:

There are two common classes of control action: manual control (open loop) and automatic control (closed-loop).

3.1. Manual control: This type of operation depends on the skill of individual operators in knowing when and how much adjustment to make. Therefore, manual control may be used in those applications where changes in the manipulated parameter cause the process to change slowly and by a small amount. This is possible in plants where there are few processing steps with infrequent process upsets and the operator has sufficient time to correct before the process parameter overshoots acceptable tolerance. Otherwise, this approach can prove to be very costly in terms of labor, product inconsistencies, and product loss.

3.2. Automatic Control: In automatic control, the process parameters measured by various sensors and instrumentation may be controlled by using control loops. A typical control loop consists of three basic component

  • Sensor: the sensor senses or measures process parameters and generate a feedback output acceptable to the controller.
  • Controller: the controller compares the measurement signal with the set value and produces a control signal to counteract any difference between the two signals.
  • System: Finally, the system receives the control signal produced by the controller and adjusts or alters the process by bringing the measured process property to return to the set point.

It is best to consider the controllability of a process at the early stage, rather than attempt to design a control system after the process plant has been developed to minimize the loss of resources.

It is well known that the food production processes are strongly non-linear, time-invariant, and often unstable. Automation of food production must handle these properties properly and employ them actively. It is a necessary step for generating the desired food structures, for inactivating and avoiding harmful chemical reactions which can lead to a substantial decrease in food quality.

The provision of the world population with food represents one of the most important future challenges for science and technology. In this context, many different objectives arise. In many countries of the world, the most urgent task is to satisfy the original nutritive minimum requirements. On the other hand, food has further functions in industrialized nations as the settlement of a special enjoyment or the promotion of health.

Any discussion regarding the automation of food production must distinguish the original production and the further treatment from the goal of preparing food for consumption, preservation, or refinement. For example, the original production of fish and sea animals take place predominantly in the oceans, those of fruit and vegetable in agricultural production centers. The automation in food production farms or centers differs fundamentally from such automation in factories. Nowadays to reach a larger market we need to ensure the safety and freshness of these items but with the manual process it takes a long time to sort and arrange the product and deliver them in time but with the help of control system or automated system these tasks complete with utmost efficiency & transparency.

  1. Importance of control systems in the food industry:
  • To maximize the benefit and for proper execution, we need digital control systems which save the organizations from costly failures in manufacturing.
  • As the demand increases day by day, food manufacturers have increasingly adopted computer-based systems for process control. This is primarily due to data accessibility y, application flexibility, and low cost provided by microprocessor technology to ensure adequate reliability.
  • Control system validation also ensures the proper operation of equipment under normal and abnormal conditions. Validation helps to assure product safety as well as the safety of manpower working in the factory.
  1. Guidelines and standards:

To ensure the correct action some guidelines & standards should be followed for the computer-controlled systems:

The FDA Perspective: DA defines validation as “the establishment of documented evidence, which provides a high degree of assurance that a specific process will consistently produce a product meeting its predetermined specifications and quality attributes” (FDA, 1987a). FDA promotes the concept of control system validation as a part of process validation within the food industry and has established some inspectional guidelines. which states that all food needs to be produced in such a way as to make sure that it has not been “prepared, packed, or held under insanitary conditions whereby it may have become contaminated with filth, or whereby it may have been rendered injurious to health.”

  1. Technology used:

Nowadays “big data” approach to the whole food supply chain (from farm to fork), would improve production efficiency and security and enable a new level of traceability in short, one of the most important lessons of the industrial revolution – the digital one – is that data is not a by-product, it is real added value and should be considered as the automation unique selling point. To cope with the extremely complex and variable scenario, a significant step-change in reducing food processing costs while increasing food quality and security is urgently needed. In this context, systematic use of automated & control systems with fully integrated digitized process control would facilitate a major advancement in food manufacturing efficiency, delivering significantly reduced production costs whilst lowering energy requirements and food waste.

  1. Reference:
  • “Feedback and control systems” – JJ Di Steffano, AR Stubberud, IJ Williams. Schaums outline series, McGraw-Hill 1967
  • Process Control in Food Processing Article by Keshavan Niranjan, Araya Ahromrit and Ahok S. Khare
  • Food Technology Article by SASHA V. ILYUKHIN, TIMOTHY A. HALEY, JOHN W. LARKIN Stanbury, P. F., Whitaker, A., Hall, S. J. 1995, Principles of Fermentation Technology
  • food manufacture 4.0 – automation and robotics at the service of food manufacturing article written by Andrea Paoli, Head of Food Manufacturing, Robotics and Automation at the National Centre for Food Manufacturing, University of Lincoln

Electrical Panels and It’s Types

  1. Introduction:

An Electrical panel is nothing but a load control Centre. All the electrical actions such as power distribution, transmission, power system protection is performed by using Electrical panel only. According to the NEC® definition, electrical panels are:

  • Used to control light, heat, or power circuits
  • Placed in a cabinet or cut-out box
  • Mounted in or against a wall
  • Accessible only from the front

Panels mainly consists of trip circuit, closing circuits, busbars, cables, MCCBs, MCBs, MPCBs, NO & NCs, etc. Electrical panels are ensuring the safe power distribution to the load. There are different ways in which electrical panels can be classified, from technologies and applications to capacity or even performance and safety but primary it is classified into two types:  HT (high tension) panels & LT (low tension panels).

  1. HT Panel:

HT Panels are generally used to supply power to various electrical devices and distribution boards. HT panels are installed both outdoor and indoor as well, while mostly used in substations for controlling the electricity flow. HT panels are designed to function at higher voltages (above 11 kilo Volts) with high insulation levels.

        HT panels include:

  • LBS Panels
  • VCB Panels
  • Metering panels
  • Load Break Switches
  • Vacuum Circuit Breakers
  • Ring Main Units (RMU)

  • LBS Panels: LBS panels are of a fixed type of switch having 3-poles and a spring-loaded shaft driving the moving contacts towards the fixed contacts. This is equipped with a trip-free mechanism for opening. LBS can be Tripped by hand push-button, shunt trip coil or a fuse-trip mechanism.
  • VCB Panels: A VCB panel is a type of circuit breaker where the arc quenching occurs in vacuum environment. VCB technology is ideal for medium voltage apps. Users can avail the technology for higher voltage, but it is not commercially viable.
  • Metering panels: Metering panels are a kind of control panels which are very much required for the domestic as well as industrial purposes for the measurement of amount of power used up and the rate of power consumption. These are best equipment’s which can easily be installed and can conveniently be used for the processes of power consumption.
  • Load Break Switches: A load break switch is a disconnectswitch that has been designed to provide making or breaking of specified currents. Load break switch comes with spring mechanism which are generally provided with Fuse protection. And hence, every time a fault occurs, fuse needs to be replaced.
  • Vacuum Circuit Breakers: Vacuum circuit breakers, the vacuum is used as the arc quenching medium. Vacuum offers the highest insulating strength. So it has far superior arc quenching properties than any other medium (oil in oil CB, SF6 in SF6 circuit breaker).
  • Ring Main Units (RMU): In an electrical power distributionsystem, a ring main unit (RMU) is a factory assembled, metal enclosed set of switchgear which are used at the load connection points of a ring-type distribution network. It includes in one unit two switches that can connect the load to either or both main conductors, and a fusible switch or circuit breaker and switch that feed a distribution transformer. Ring main units can be characterized by their type of insulationairoil or gas. The switch used to isolate the transformer can be a fusible switch or may be a circuit breaker using vacuum or gas-insulated interrupters. The unit may also include protective relays to operate the circuit breaker on a fault.
  1. LT Panels:

LT Panels are used with low tension cables to obtain power from the generator or transformer and distribute electricity to various electrical devices and distribution boards. LT panels are designed to function at lower voltages (up to 415 Volts) with low insulation levels.

      LT PANELS are classified into many types:

  • PCC (Power control center) Panel
  • MCC (Motor Control Center) Panel
  • APFC (Automatic power factor control) Panel
  • AMF (Automatic mains failure) Panel
  • DG Synchronization panel
  • Automation Panel (SCADA PLC Panel)


  • PCC Panel: PCC is a short form of Power Control Center. This is a heart of the control circuit. The output of the generators or transformers is given to PCC. It is also known as Main distribution board (MDB). Major protection circuits will be installed in this panel to protect transformers, Motors, Generators etc. The output Power from the PCC panel will be distributed to MCC panels via feeder.            
  • MCC Panel: MCC is a short form of Motor control center. It consists of Feeders. It’s an assembly to control some or all electric motors in a central location. It consists of multiple enclosed sections having a common power bus and with each section containing a combination starter, which in turn consists of motor starterfuses or circuit breaker, and power disconnect. A motor control center  also includes push buttons, indicator lights, variable-frequency drives(VFD), programmable logic controllers(PLC), and metering equipment. It may be combined with the electrical service entrance for the building
  • APFC Panel: APFC is an automatic power factor electrical device which is employed to boost the ability factor, whenever required, by switching ON and OFF the desired capacitor bank units automatically. APFC Panel has microcontroller based programmable controller which switches the capacitor banks of suitable capacity automatically in multiple stages by directly reading the reactive load (RKVA) which works in the principle of VAR sensing tends to keep up the PF to 0.99 Lag. 
  • AMF Panel: AMF Panel is the shortened form of Auto Mains Failure panel, it’s also be called an Automatic Transfer Switch. The AMF is connected to the incoming mains power supply & generator set to power control the operational functions. Once a power cut is detected, it automatically signals the generator to start and support the load. It will also start the generator if it detects that the mains power fluctuates. These are ‘out of pre-set tolerances’ instances, for example power dips. When the AMF panel detects that the mains has failed or is outside of tolerance, it will send a start signal to the generator to fire up & control the load.
  • DG Synchronization Panel: Basically DG Synchronization panel are mainly designed for meeting critical aspects of Power system requirements which primarily includes uninterrupted or flashing restoration of Power supply along with DG and circuitry protection for an infrastructure of social or  commercial  values and repute ( like Hospitals , Malls , Multi-storeyed residential societies, Hotels, Telecommunication sectors and  Industries with varied loads of power implementation ) D.G. Synchronization panels work both manually and with an automatic synchronizing function using PLC  for two or more generators or breakers. They are pre-dominantly used in electro-mechanical synchronizing of Diesel generators and provide multiplex solutions. 
  • Automation Panel: Automation panels combine the functions of a programmable controller and operator interface into a single unit. Automation panels reduce hardware costs by combining the controller, operator interface, and remote connectivity into one device. It may be more accurate to describe these panels as PAC controllers with a built-in operator interface, rather than just an operator interface that performs control. Nowadays it is more used in industry where the whole process is running with the automation & the control can be can remote. So, it minimizes the interference of humans.


Nowadays electrical panels are available in many different forms and sizes and is suitable for electrical enclosures in many kinds of buildings and establishments. They provide more security to all electrical components and parts and are fruitful towards effortless operations as well.

In industries, electrical consultants design electric distribution boards with a distribution transformer. After this, they bus duct this board to PCC Panel for more distribution of electrical panels. Also, electrical contractors supply MCC Panel and APFC Panel to enhance its functionality. Apart from this, when a client chooses to install a solar power plant, we supply Solar ACDB and Solar DCDB Feeder Pillar and Junction Box along with synchronizing panels.

And In process plant one or more motor control by a piece of equipment that called an electrical control panel. The electrical control panel starts or stops much equipment’s through switchgear and SCADA automation by using MCCB, Contractor, PLC, Overload relay and plug-in relay, etc.

Apart from all distribution panels there is one more panel called as solar panel which are used nowadays due to increase in the use of solar as the renewable energy source.

  1. Solar LT Panels:

Solar LT Panel is an electrical distribution board that receives power from solar panels and distributes the same to various electronic devices and distribution boards. These types of panels are used in industries both for internal as well as external use. Solar panels are used to collect solar energy from the sun and convert it into electricity.


The typical solar panel is composed of individual solar cells, each of which is made from layers of silicon, boron, and phosphorus. The boron layer provides the positive charge, the phosphorus layer provides the negative charge, and the silicon wafer acts as the semiconductor.


There are 4 major types of solar panels available on the market today:

  • Monocrystalline: monocrystalline panels can generate up to 300w of power capacity.
  • Polycrystalline:  polycrystalline panel is now capable of producing between 240-300w. However, monocrystalline panels still beat polycrystalline in terms of power capacity per cell.
  • PERC, and
  • thin-film panels.

  • Solar Panel Types Comparison sheet:

  1. Safety:

Always be cautious when working with any electrical panels. It has parts that can electrocute you and it can be lethal. Avoid touching the neutral bus bar, a neutral wire, main black cable, burnt or damaged parts, and exposed metal parts. Remember, it is only safe to touch a circuit breaker when all the power is turned Off. 

  1. Certification:

All Electrical control panel manufacturers should have CPRI Approved Label to design and manufacture premium quality electrical Panels. CPRI Approved means Central Power Research Institute established by the Government of India. CPRI approved manufacturers are professionals who are authorized by CPRI. The premier institute undertakes applied research in electrical functioning as an independent national testing and certification authority to manufacture electrical equipment. 

  1. Reference:

Carbonation in Tonic Water

  1. Introduction

Tonic water is carbonated water infused with quinine. This compound which is extracted from the bark of Cinchona tree provides the distinctive bitter taste. For a drink to be called tonic water, a minimum level of quinine must be added. The maximum amount that can be added is also regulated, but it varies from country to country, for instance it is 57 mg/L in the United Kingdom, 83 mg/L in USA, and 85 mg/L in Germany. To mask the bitter flavor, sweeteners such as fructose, as well as artificial flavoring agents are also used in the preparation of tonic water. As tonic water is a moderately carbonated product, the quality of the added carbonated water has a significant impact on the organoleptic properties of the product.

  1. Carbonation process

Carbonation is the impregnation of a liquid with carbon dioxide gas. When dissolved in water it forms carbonic acid. These acid in combination with the product produces the acidic and bitter taste found in CSD’s. The carbonation process is the last process while manufacturing tonic water. The dissolved gas not only adds a distinctive taste and a sparkling effect to the beverage, but also acts against bacteria. Soft drinks beverages contain carbonation ranging from 1 to 5 volumes of CO2 gas per volume of liquid. In tonic water, the level of carbonation is not more than 4 CO2 gas volumes.

The final premix is fed to a vessel pressurized with CO2 gas which is judged by the pressure and flow rate of the CO2, which is critical to ensure the needed carbonation level. Therefore, the greater the surface area of the liquid exposed to the CO­2, the higher the rate of CO2 absorption will be in the liquid. For a given volume, the amount of carbon dioxide than can be retained in solution depends on the temperature and pressure. The lower the temperature while filling, the greater the amount of carbon dioxide that is retained.

Typically, water alone is often carbonated to ensure minimum contamination of the system by syrup or concentrates. The product is spread over chilled plates, such that the product runs down the plates as a thin film. This is carried out in a constant-pressure carbon dioxide atmosphere, the lighter, displaced air being bled off. Chilling the product between 1°C to 5°C as a film maximizes the surface area available to the CO2, thus promoting effective carbonation. This has the added benefit that at a lower temperature the gas stays in solution more easily.


Carbonated beverages can be manufactured in one of the following three ways:

  1. a) The ingredients of the end product are made up as a syrup that is typically five or six time concentrated. This syrup will often be flash pasteurized and then mixed in proportioning system with the required amount of water, which has been carbonated in a separate operation. The carbonated end product is then filled into the required container. This approach is known as the premix method.


  1. b) The concentrated syrup is dosed into each container on the filler and the container topped up with carbonated water. After leaving the filler, container will be mechanically inverted to ensure adequate mixing of syrup and carbonated water. This is the post mix method.


  1. c) A less frequently used method is to make up the product at drinking strength, inject CO in a suitable system, and then fill the container.


  1. Functional Parts of a Carbonation system

The production of drink considers deaeration of water for reducing foam in the final drink during the phase bottling and avoid the oxidation of the final product. The mixing between water and syrup to achieve the right dilution of syrup which realizes the final product. The following are the function parts of a carbonation system:

  • Deaeration group: It is composed with a horizontal tank kept to a high grade of vacuum by a liquid ring vacuum pump, the incoming water is added of CO2 and sprayed by means of high efficiency nozzles; a second pump recycles the water from first to second stage where a second CO2 addition takes place. The system ensures removal of the air inside the feeding water, the addition of CO2 is manually adjusted with a special needle valve provided with flow meter variable area.
  • Dosage group: It allows the automatic dosage control of the right quantity of syrup in the water, the correct amount is ensured thanks a control and measure chain consisting of mass flow meters mounted both on the syrup and water line.
  • Cooling group: A plate heat exchanger cools the mixed product down to 6°C. The thermal exchange is obtained in countercurrent with glycol solution regulated by a pneumatic modulating valve. This valve is controlled by a temperature probe mounted on the drink outlet pipe from the heat exchanger.
  • CO2 injection group in line high pressure: It is obtained thanks to the use of a pneumatic modulating valve, a mass flow meter and one injector able to disperse the gas into the liquid.
  • Mixing group: It is realized by means of two static mixers with high performance which allow the best mixing of gas into liquid.
  • Storage and final product stabilization group: It is a buffer tank kept at a constant pressure by means of a CO2 injection valve and a vent modulating valve. The tank is equipped with a continuous level to manage the various processing phases and adapt the work range to the filler one. A centrifugal pump regulated by inverter allows the transfer of the final drink up to the filler.


  1. Filling of carbonated beverages

The filling of carbonated beverages is achieved under gravity, the rate of flow being dependent on the head difference between the filler bowl and the container.

            The rate of flow to fill the container is a function of the overpressure applied to the top of the filling bowl (p), the viscosity of the liquid to be filled (µ), the diameter of the filling tube (d) and the length (d) and the length of pipe (l). This can be expressed mathematically by the following formula:


  1. Further Reading

  • Abu-Reidah, I. Carbonated Beverages, Trends In Non-Alcoholic Beverages
  • Ashurst, P. Chemistry and Technology of Soft Drinks and Fruit Juices. Wiley, 2016.
  • Robertson, L. Food Packaging and Shelf Life: A Practical Guide.
  • Ashurst, P. The Stability and Shelf Life of Fruit Juices and Soft Drinks.


Calibration Measurement and Monitoring of Equipment

Instrument calibration are an integral part of any operation in manufacturing facilities and testing laboratory. They are vital for data quality assurance.

In this video lecture, Veena Mishra (Process Engineer) at PMG Engineering outlines the basic requirements for the calibration and monitoring instruments based primarily on standard monitoring methods.

Processing of Edible Vegetable Oils

Oils of plant origin have been predominantly used for food-based applications. Plant oils not only represent a non-polluting renewable resource but also provide a wide diversity in fatty acids (FAs) composition with diverse applications. Besides being edible, they are now increasingly being used in industrial applications such as paints, lubricants, soaps, biofuels etc. In addition, plants can be engineered to produce fatty acids which are nutritionally beneficial to human health.

Vegetable edible oil refers to oil obtained from oilseeds and nuts through an extraction process. It can be extracted from various oil seeds such as mustard, coconut, soybean, peanut, rapeseed, cottonseed, sesame, etc. via pressing process. Plant based extracted oils are generally used for salad dressing, deep fat frying and pan frying.

Until the industrial revolution in the 19th century, rapeseed, linseed, olives, and nuts were the primary sources of vegetable oils. Today, the world market is dominated by palm and soybean oil, followed by rapeseed and sunflower oil. This has led to a change in the extraction and purification/modification processes. Originally, the oil extraction process consisted of cleaning, crushing, heating, and pressing only. But from 1900 onwards, solvent extraction was applied to recover the residual oil from the pressed cake or to replace the pressing process completely (e.g., for soybean oil). At the same time, the oil purification process changed from a simple decanting and filtration to a combination of neutralization with caustic, bleaching with active clay and deodorization at high temperature under vacuum with steam.

Commercial Process of Manufacturing Edible Vegetable Oil

In a typical edible oil processing plant oil is extracted from the seed first using mechanical extraction (expeller press) process followed by chemical extraction (hexane extraction) process. By using both methods less than 1% of the oil is left in the meal. Then the left out residual meal is sold as an animal feed raw material. Following are the steps involved for the processing of vegetable oil:

Step 1: Harvesting of Oil Seeds

Seed is planted and harvested as with any other crop. This is followed by the cleaning process, which removes unwanted materials such as soil and other seeds from the harvest. In some cases, it is preferable to shell the seed, removing hulls for a better-quality final product.

Step 2: Processing

At this point, if the seed is large, the seed is crushed or broken up into smaller pieces. These uniform pieces are then conditioned by heating before being pressed for oil. The two products of this process are the raw pressed oil and the press cake, which is the compressed dry material of the seed. The raw oil is filtered before moving on to the final steps.

Step 3: Solvent Extraction

Pressed cake is flaked and broken down for additional oil extraction. The flakes are ground up and mixed with hexane to produce a slurry, which is heated. During heating, the hexane evaporates, and is collected for further use. While being heated, the meal releases the remaining oil, which is mixed with a small amount of hexane that did not evaporate.

Step 4: Refining

It is a combination of the following process steps for producing an edible oil with characteristics that consumers desire such as bland flavor and odor, clear appearance, light color, stability to oxidation and suitability for frying:

  1. Degumming: A pretreatment process applied to seed oils to reduce the phosphorus content. It is a two-step process with addition of water and/or acid to hydrate phospholipids. The phospholipids are subsequently removed by centrifugation.
  2. Neutralization: The purpose of neutralization is to reduce the concentration of free fatty acids to a maximum of 0.10% with the use of a diluted alkali solution, typically sodium hydroxide. This process can be applied batch-wise in stirred vessels and continuously by means of centrifuges. After alkali treatment, the oil is washed with hot water or treated with silica to reduce the residual soap level in the neutralized oil.
  3. Bleaching: The main purpose is to remove residual soap, pigments, and oxidized components. In this process, bleaching earth (activated clay and/or silica) is added to the oil as absorbent. The earth and absorbed impurities are subsequently removed by filtration. Addition of activated carbon in the bleaching process will also reduce the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon level. An acid pretreatment before bleaching earth addition will improve the removal of phosphorous (max 30ppm) and/or metals during the bleaching process.
  4. Deodorization: Under high vacuum the oil is heated to 180–240°C and brought in contact with stripping steam to remove volatile components and to create an odorless oil with a bland taste and increased storage stability. Also, free fatty acids can be removed during deodorization, at increased temperatures (220–270°C).

The process sequence of combined degumming/neutralization followed by bleaching and deodorization is called chemical refining, referring to the chemical removal of free fatty acids. The process sequence of degumming followed by bleaching with acid pretreatment and deodorization at high temperature is called physical refining, referring to the physical removal of free fatty acids (stripping). The physical refining process is generally preferred for low phosphorous oils (acid degummed seed oils and tropical oils) due to lower oil losses and less liquid effluent production.

Industry can design almost any fat or oil for a specific application by the use of various modification processes, such as hydrogenation, interesterification, fractionation or blending. Hydrogenation typically reduces essential fatty acid content and creates various fatty acid isomers, both cis and trans. The wide flexibility available to industry through the selection of raw materials and different modification processes allows for the production of oils at the lowest cost possible, an important aspect of food production.



Biscuit Manufacturing Industry

The word “biscuit” is derived from the Latin panis biscoctus, “twice-baked bread”. Biscuit- covers a wide range of flour baked products, though it is generally an unleavened cake or bread, crisp and dry in nature, and in a small, thin, and flat shape. Biscuits have evolved from different aspects of baking practices such as tarts, pastries, short cakes, and sugar confectionery. They have given rise to the wafer, macaroon, cracker, sandwich, snap, gingerbread, honey cake, rusk, and water biscuit. Biscuits are divided into two main groups. The first are plain or have a savory flavoring. The second type are sweet or semi-sweet in character.

Biscuits are made from a number of ingredients. Flour is the most basic and important. Different types give a range of textures and crispness. Whole meal wheat flour is used in the “digestive,” “sweet meal,” or “wheat-meal” type of biscuits. Oatmeal forms the basis of oatmeal biscuits. Rice flour and corn flour add flavor. Fats give the biscuits their “shortness.” Butter and lard are the main fats, though these are augmented by vegetable and other refined fats. For fancy biscuits, sugar is an important ingredient, and introduces a range of tastes. It is added in several forms: processed as caster and Demerara sugars, syrups, honey, and malt extract. These have a range of consistencies and may help to bind together other ingredients. Aerating and raising ingredients, such as baking powder (bicarbonate of soda and tartaric acid), make the biscuit light. Flavorings are also added. These include dried fruit, nuts, chocolate (powder or chips), spices, herbs, and flavoring essences such as vanilla. The dry ingredients are bound together with eggs and milk (fresh, condensed, or dried) or water. Biscuits have a high energy content, ranging from 420 to 510 kcal per 100 gm.

The process of biscuit-making is rapid and continuous. The ingredients are mixed into a dough that is then kneaded and rolled to a uniform thickness. Biscuit shapes are cut from it, and placed in a traveling oven. Some biscuits require special preparation and cooking techniques.

Most biscuits are distinguished by their appearance: round, square, oblong, finger-shaped, or fancifully impressed with designs. Plain biscuits are normally punched with a cutter or docker, to increase crispness during baking. Fancy biscuits can be covered with sugar, icing, or coated (fully or partially) with chocolate. Each type of biscuit also has its own commercial name, which refers to ingredients, a designation (sandwich, wafer, macaroon, or cracker), texture, eating qualities, and the time when it was to be eaten.

Process Flow Chart of Biscuit manufacturing

Premixing-> Mixing-> Moulding->Baking->Sandwiching/ Cooling->Packing

Step-1: Pre-Mixing
In this section all the ingredients are mixed and poured in the mixer. At this stage- type of ingredient, its order of mixing, quantity, and temperature matters. Each ingredient has its own importance and action. The variables among the ingredients are water and ammonium bicarbonate (ABC), where water is used for dough making and ABC is used to increase height of biscuits.

Step-2: Mixing
Dough formation known as mixing stage. In this step first creaming is performed, all the liquid materials are poured and mixed with sugar to make an evenly mixed liquid, then flour is poured and mixed with the creamed contents. The more we mix the harder dough becomes, less mixing results in short dough. Generally, cookies are short dough biscuits whereas crackers are of hard dough fermented type.  After mixing dough with the creamed ingredients dough is formed which is fed to the moulder.

Step-3: Molding
It is a critical step in biscuit manufacturing process in terms of biscuit finishing and weight. Large weight results in losses in terms of extra weight given to the buyer. This extra weight which gets packed to maintain the written weight is known as giveaway. In a moulder there is a knife placed in between a forcing roller and a die. There are two controls present 1st knife control in all four directions up, down, forward and back, and press control in both left and right side of the roller.

Step-4: Baking (200 d.cel)

Baking consists of a number of chambers known as zone. Each zone is an independent oven with its own temperature setting. The large the plant capacity larger will be the number of zones. Biscuit travels in a mild steel continental wire mesh inside the oven. Raising, puffing, and colouring occurs in a sequence with overlapped boundaries inside an oven. Finally, after the oven what is needs to be checked is weather the biscuit is fully baked, even texture, required height, and colour. Biscuit needs to be golden brown to dark chocolaty depending upon the variety.

Step-5: Sandwiching/Cooling (5- 10 min)

Post baking sandwiching is done for cream biscuits, whereas other varieties are sent to packing after passing through a cooling tunnel/conveyor. Sandwiching is the process in which a layer of cream is poured between two biscuits and a delicious cream biscuit is produced.


Step-6: Packing

In packing there are various types of machines which pack the biscuits according to the pack weight i.e., 50g, 100g, 150g etc. and then after complete packing in corrugated fiber carton (CFC) they are sent for loading in trucks.

Bakery products, biscuits including wafer biscuits are made from maida, vanaspati or refined edible oil or table butter or desi butter or margarine or ghee. There are various established processes commercially available and being practiced by different manufacturers. Lots of developments are evident in field of machineries and processes. Biscuits are one of the most popular snacks around the world and liked and enjoyed by people of all age groups. It can be taken with anything from a cup of tea or coffee to milk or just nibbled alone. They can be dunked or eaten as is.


  1. Corley, T. A. B. “Nutrition, Technology and the Growth of the British Biscuit Industry 1820–1900.” In The Making of the Modern British Diet, edited by Derek J. Oddy and Derek S. Miller. London: Croom Helm, 1976.
  2. Corley, T. A. B. Quaker Enterprise in Biscuits: Huntley & Palmers of Reading 1822–1972. London: Hutchinson, 1972.