Noodles are staple foods in many regions of the world. Instant noodles were born and manufactured by Nissin Foods, in Japan, in 1958. It is made from an unleavened dough that is rolled flat and cut stretched, or extruded into long strips or of different shapes. Noodles are a long, thin pieces of food made from a mixture of flour, water, and eggs. Most noodle types share the typical processing steps of mixing ingredients, kneading, rolling, or sheeting the dough, and cutting it into pieces. Noodles are usually consumed in wet, boiled, steamed, or fried form.
Noodles is produced in over 80 countries worldwide. It is one of the most important staple foods in Asia. Asian noodles are evolved into various types and forms. Noodles or pasta are made from very simple formulas. Noodles manufactured in United States use eggs, but in other parts of the world, egg is not a required ingredient, in place of eggs, salt is used everywhere.
Noodles is a food represents an inexpensive means of improving diet quality in developed countries and helps to reduce hunger problems in developing countries. For the manufacturing of noodles, generally Durum wheat is used.
- Types of flour used for making Noodles
Noodles are most versatile food items in the world. We can eat noodles either with vegetables or on their own. Noodles can be consumed with sauces to enhance their taste and it can also be consumed with lots of vegetables to enhance their nutritional value.
For making noodles, five basic ingredients are used: Water, Salt, eggs, oil, and the very important ingredient is flour. Different kinds of flour are used for making noodles for health, taste, and texture reasons. Following are the flour generally used for manufacturing of noodles.
2.1 All-purpose flour
All-purpose flour is the most common flour used for making different kinds of dishes. Just like the name suggests, it is good to use for all purposes. Benefits of using all-purpose flour is, its texture, color, and elasticity.
2.2 Semolina flour
Semolina is referred to as Noodle or Pasta flour because of its coarser texture. Semolina has very high gluten content which helps in binding and gives its firm texture. But the disadvantage of semolina flour for Gluten intolerant people can’t consume noodle made from Semolina flour.
2.3 Whole wheat flour
Whole wheat flour is the ingredient which is mostly used for noodle manufacturing. This flour adds texture and nutrition along with this it is a healthier option, being less refined and containing lower carbs than other flour. Wheat flour contains less calories than other refined kind of Noodles.
Wheat noodles are manufactured by mixing durum wheat flour, water, and salt. For making wheat noodles, wheat flour is the main ingredients, and their appearance and texture strongly depends on flour characteristics. Swelling and gelatinization characteristics of wheat flour determine whether the surface of noodles is sticky or hard.
2.4 Corn Flour
Corn flour is gluten free flour so, it is a good option for gluten intolerant patient. The noodles made up of corn flour has distinct taste of corn, also it creates a slightly grainer texture than wheat noodles. Corn- flour can be used for noodles making by mixing with other flour also.
2.5 Quinoa flour
Quinoa flour is the best flour made by grinding the grains into powder. It is the best flour because this flour all the health benefits including high protein, high fiber, low glycemic index, which is good for controlling blood sugar level.
2.6 Buckwheat flour
Buckwheat is like whole grain, but the main difference is that it is gluten- free. It is popular ingredient because of its nutritional value, it is high in minerals and antioxidants. The noodles made from this flour is basically chewy and grainy.
2.7 Rice Flour
Rice noodles have a long history. It can be used in different forms, such as, fresh dried, and instant noodles which provides variation by which rice is enjoyed in our diet. Rice is a staple food used all over the world. It delivers both benefits of gluten- free and low glycemic index.
2.8 Plantain Flour
Plantain is basically a variety of banana which is hybrid of two species, i.e., Musa acuminata and Musa balbiciana. The botanical name of plantain is Musa paradiciaca. Mature green plantain was processed into plantain flour. Plantain flour is made by peeling, washing, slicing, drying, and grinding of green plantain.
Instant noodles are classified into two types based on methods used for removal of moisture.
- Instant dried noodles
- Instant fried noodles
In dried noodles, the moisture of noodles is removed by the process of hot air drying to decrease the moisture content to about 8 – 12 %. Frying the noodles decreases the moisture content to about 2-5 %. But the disadvantage of frying is it contains about 15-20% oil. So, this is more susceptible to oxidation resulting in rancidity and have health issues due to higher oil and fat content.
There are different types of noodles present in market based on brands, in which Maggi -2-minute Noodles is most popular brand of instant Noodles in India. Because of busy lifestyle, easy to cook food is the need of the adults now-a-days. Eating nutritious food, incorporating physical activities and good taste is the key to maintain the healthy lifestyle.
- Manufacturing of noodles
Noodle manufacturing comprises of mixing of raw materials, resting the dough, sheeting the dough into sheets, and gradually sheeting the dough into specified thickness and slitting into noodle strands.
For instant noodle preparation, strands are steamed and dehydrated by drying or frying followed by cooling and packaging. These are the following steps followed for the manufacturing of noodles:
3.1 Mixing and kneading
As a first step, the wheat flour made up of durum wheat goes into the mixing machine. Then, dough is kneaded with water at room temperature of about 20 to 30 degrees centigrade. Kneading machine mixes the ingredients slowly without causing friction or heating the dough. In more automated industrial process, kneading is made inside vats with a single rotating shaft for 15 to 20 minutes with a speed between 29 to 100 revolution per minute.
3.2 Roller belt
After mixing and kneading the dough it goes into rotating rollers to form sheets. This roller belt helps to distribute the noodles evenly. Then we leave the dough for a specific time to mature. As after rolling the thickness of roller reduces about 1 mm to 1.5 mm. This machine is suitable to produce flat pasta such as lasagna, Fettuccine, and Spaghetti.
3.3 Cutter/ Slitter Machine
Slitter machine is also named as Noodle cutter. It is a type of cutter which can slit dough sheets into noodles. Noodle cutting is the final procedure in noodle manufacturing, so it plays a crucial role. With the help of slitter these instant noodles are made even thinner. Slitter cut the noodles in strand generally of about 2 inches wide and 13 inches long.
3.4 Steaming Machine
Steaming of noodles can be done for around 4 to 5 minutes at 100 degrees centigrade. Steamed noodles are partially cooked by treating fresh noodles with either saturated or unsaturated steam before they are marketed. Steamed noodles are prepared using a semi-automatic steamer.
3.5. Dehydration process
After steaming, most of the noodles are dehydrated either by oil frying or by air drying, thus fried or un- fried noodles is formed. Drying of noodle is very important and risky process because when the noodle is too dried it will break down and if it is dried too slowly it will spoil.
After steaming the noodles, it should be goes through the cooling machine for further cooling of noodles. It should be kept in cooling machine for 4-5 minutes.
The dried and cooled noodles are then put into firm bags and containers as required and then it is used for packaging. The instant noodles can also be garnished and packed into plastic bags. Then the packed noodles can be transported in market for sale.
- Shelf life of Noodle
Shelf life of noodles depends on various factors like best-by-date, preparation method and how it was stored. Shelf life of dry pasta is roughly about 1 to 2 years and cooked or processed noodles is about 4 to 5 days in freezer and 1 week in refrigerator.
- Nutritional benefits of Noodles
Noodles are generally very low in calorie and fiber. It is a good source of energy. Noodles can help with stomach problems, and it may help lower cholesterol. Cooked noodles contain 34% carbohydrate, 6% protein, low amount of fat with moderate amount of manganese.
5.1 Sustained Energy
Cooked noodles provide 34% carbohydrates which is a crucial fuel for our brain and muscle. It releases energy in a slow and sustained level. It is consumed by the players before playing to enhance their energy level.
5.2 Low sodium and cholesterol free
The amount of sodium is very low in noodles, and it is cholesterol free. It helps with stomach problems. Noodles is a good source of several essential nutrients including iron and B- vitamin.
Noodles contain 6% protein and low amount of fat. It is a good source of complex carbohydrate. It can be consumed to enhance calorie. Noodles can be combined with vegetables for a complete meal that puts you well on the path of hitting dietary goals.
- https://marutinoodlez.wixsite.com/noodles/single-post/2016/10/04/step-by-step- process-of-instant-noodles-manufacturing
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