Time Management Importance and implementation

Time management help to invest time more productively and efficiently. Time management includes making a list, and then allocating time to each task from to-do list, and then scheduling those tasks in calendar. Time management is the effective use of time that prepares to plan day in such a way that work is finished, and one doesn’t have to make extra effort.

When we’re lacking good time management skills, we are more likely to,

  • Miss project deadlines
  • Produce low-quality work
  • Disrupt our work-life balance
  • Feel more stressed
  • Harm our professional reputation

Why is time Management Important

Time management is important in everyday life because it helps control workday so one can build business with effective work-life balance.

      1. Improve performance

Time management helps to focus on the essential task only. When followed a schedule, it is more likely to spend less time deciding what to work on. And hence can allocate more time to important work.

      1. Produce Better Work

When there is no pressure and one has already made a schedule that how the work shall proceed, the work output shall be more efficiency and consistent. And the end results shall be appreciated by all.

      1. Deliver work on time

Properly managing time involves managing every task on list to a specific block of time. Many people take several days to complete a project or finish it ahead of the due date to provide a buffer for any challenges that might arise. If properly scheduled, the time needed to complete work will be able to hit deadlines every time.

      1. Reduce Your Stress

This is one of the most important reasons to manage time in today’s corporate world. There is a lot of stress because of work. If time is properly managed and you are giving your deliverables on time Prioritizing tasks and giving yourself enough time to accomplish them can help reduce stress levels.

The 4 Ds of Time Management 

  1. Do

One should work on tasks that only take a few minutes to complete like answering a phone call or reverting to a phone call, answering an email, or printing a report.

  1. Defer (Delay)

Avoid wasting time on tasks that are not important as to now prioritize the task that needs to be done first.

  1. Delegate

Reassign important tasks to someone else to check their creditability and check whether they will be able to do these tasks in near future or not.

  1. Delete

Remove unnecessary tasks from schedule and focus on the important ones. This involves conscious call.

What are Time Management skills?

 Time management skills are those skills, when horned can help with time effectiveness and achieve desired results. These can help allocate time properly and complete your task more efficiently in time bound manner. Some of the most important skills related to successful time management include:

  1. Being Organized

Being organized helps you to keep track of your responsibilities and priorities, like what you need to do first and what you can take up to do last. An organized list of tasks acts as a map to guide from morning to evening and helps increase your productivity.

  1. Prioritization

Prioritization is the key to successful time management when you start prioritization your daily task. You will ensure that the most important task should be completed first. 

  1. Planning

Planning is the core of time management. With a proper plan, you can prioritize your tasks accordingly, which can help avoid confusion and unnecessary stress. A planned work schedule helps you complete the tasks in the given time frame.

  1. Delegation

It is an important process to manage multiple tasks. While managing a project/other Important work, you can delegate some of the tasks to your subordinates. This will help in reducing your workload so that you can focus more on important tasks, such as planning, business analysis, and others.


How could time management be crucial to your business?

  • It can help in sticking to deadlines.
  • Time management can often improve focus and overall efficiency.
  • Better time management can lead to fewer Problems.
  •  Good time management can lead to less stress and more freedom.
  • Time management is easier now than ever before.



Good time management helps to maintain control in life. When one start managing your time, immediate and quantitative impact can be evident. When you have control of your time, you feel more in control of your life — having control of your life gives you power and freedom, and time management helps you maintain this control.


Insight into Food Quality Measurement

What is considered food quality?

Food Quality is the quality that the consumer finds acceptable in food service. The food quality parameter includes external elements like aspect (size, shape, brightness, and color), texture, and taste. Other features include internal components and legal quality standards (chemical, physical, microbiological). Many consumers base their decisions on production and processing norms, citing substances with dietary, medicinal, or nutritional requirements (for allergies or diabetes, for example). Food quality is intimately tied to health and hygiene standards and includes traceability and labeling.

Importance of Quality Control

  1. Decrease in production costs

Companies in the food sector can significantly lower their production costs by implementing effective inspection and control in the production processes and operations. Production expenses are further raised by wastage and poor product quality. Quality control monitors the creation of subpar goods and wastes, which significantly lowers the cost of production.

  1. Improved goodwill

Quality control boosts the company’s reputation in the public eye by creating goods of higher quality and meeting client needs. As a result, the brand gains a solid reputation and favorable word-of-mouth marketing on offline and online platforms. A well-known company can readily raise capital from the market. Additionally, a company’s chances of surviving in the fiercely competitive market are better with improved goodwill.

  1. Simplifies pricing

Companies in the food business can ensure that uniform products of the same quality are produced by implementing quality control techniques. This considerably simplifies the issue of food product price fixing. Additionally, this removes the concern over commodities’ prices fluctuating continually.

  1. Improved Sales

Quality control ensures that high-quality items are produced, which draws more customers to the product and boosts sales. It is crucial in sustaining and generating new demand for the company’s products. Additionally, increased social media usage has increased the need for brands to stay alert constantly. Any unfavorable feedback from a customer could harm the brand’s reputation.

  1. Improved Production Methods

Quality control ensures that goods are produced according to the desired standards and at reasonable rates. Quality control ensures better methods and designs of production by providing technical and engineering data for the product and manufacturing processes.

  1. Enhanced employee morale

An efficient quality control system is beneficial in raising staff morale. Employees are more inclined and motivated to work toward the firm’s goals when they believe they are employed by a company that produces sound, high-quality products. Additionally, these workers are more likely to adhere to the organization’s criteria for quality control in their work.

What are Food Quality Testing Parameters?

Any food characteristics used to gauge quality can be called quality parameters. However, the specific features assessed can vary since quality can mean different things to different people along the food supply chain.


The following parameters are commonly used in food quality testing:

These quality parameters are used alone or in various combinations depending on the needs of a stakeholder in the food supply chain.

Broad Categories of Food Quality Measuring Instruments 




A separate industrial sector is expanding with food science research and practice to create and deliver the precise instruments required to measure and monitor numerous quality indicators. One of the most widely used methods is near-infrared spectroscopy, which is suitable for determining the quality and quantity of organic molecules. Together with those made for post-harvest gas analysis, these tools are actively enhancing the production of fresh fruits and vegetables, paving the way for more earnings and more environmentally friendly practices.



Planning, Organizing, Directing, Controlling in Office

1. Introduction

Management in the office is very essential for an organized life and necessary to run all types of organizations. Managing an organization is very important and means getting things done with and through other people to achieve its objectives. Management is the art and science of managing people. Knowledge of management is very important as it will help you identify and develop the skills to better manage your career, relationships, and the behavior of others in organizations.

It may be convenient to separate the function of management but practically these functions are overlapping in nature i.e. they are highly inseparable. Each function is connected with each other and any one of them affects the whole chain is affected.

The challenge of a manager is to solve problems creatively. Managing a workplace solving issues and making sure that the work is going on smoothly is very important. So to manage all these activities there are 4 principles of Management.

There are basically 4 primary functions of management.

    1. Planning
    2. Organizing
    3. Directing
    4. Controlling


Planning is the first and most important function of management, planning is future-oriented. It is a systematic way of making decisions today that will affect the future of the company. Planning bridges the gap between where we are and where we want to go.

Planning is deciding in advance – what to do when to do & how to do it. It is the determination of courses of action to achieve desired goals. Thus, planning is systematic thinking about ways & means for the accomplishment of pre-determined goals. It is all-pervasive, it is an intellectual activity and it also helps in reducing confusion, uncertainties, risks, wastages, etc. Planning is necessary to ensure the proper utilization of  Resources both human & non-human resources.


It is the process of bringing together physical, financial, and human resources and developing productive relationships among the employees so that they can work effectively and efficiently.

To organize a business and to make it work one has to provide it with everything useful for its functioning i.e. raw material, tools, capital, and personnel. Organizing a business involves determining & providing all the resources that are required, to work smoothly.

Organizing as a process involves

  • Identification of activities.
  • Classification of a grouping of activities.
  • Assignment of duties.
  • Delegation of authority and creation of responsibility.
  • Coordinating authority and responsibility relationships.


Directing is the third important function of management. Directing main focus is on instructing, guiding, inspiring, counseling, and leading people toward the accomplishment of the desired goal.  It is a continuous process that goes on, throughout the life of the organization.

Directing is the heart of the management process. As we can say if a supervisor guides his subordinates and tries to clarify his doubts about a task, it will help the employee to achieve work targets given to him as the right direction has been given.

Directing has the following elements:

3.1 Supervision– Supervision means overseeing the work of the employees by their superiors. The act of watching and directing them in case of any difficulty.

3.2 Motivation– This means motivating and encouraging employees to work accordingly. Motivation is important in any workplace as sometimes due to unhealthy work culture.

3.3 Leadership– Leadership may be defined as a process by which a leader guides and influences the work of subordinates in the desired direction. And solve their problems.

3.4 Communication  Communication is the process of connecting with someone and passing information, experience, opinion, etc. from one person to another. Communication is a bridge of understanding.


 This is the last important function of management controlling means checking whether proper progress is made toward the objective or goal. Controlling is done to ensure that everything occurs in accordance with the standards. A good controlling system can detect the problems that are going to occur before they actually occur.

It includes monitoring the plan that is implemented and correcting the deviation from that plan.      The main function of controlling is to check errors in order to take corrective actions. Therefore controlling has the following steps:

  1. Establishment of standard performance.
  2. Measurement of actual performance.
  3. Comparison of actual performance with the standards and finding out deviation if any.
  4. Corrective action.





Single Line Diagram (SLD)

1. Introduction

Single-line diagram (SLD) is also known as a one-line diagram. It is a high-level diagram that shows how incoming power is distributed to the equipment. It is the first step in preparing a critical response plan, allowing you to become thoroughly familiar with the electrical transmission system layout and design.

The single-line diagram also becomes your lifeline of information when updating or responding to an emergency. An accurate single-line diagram ensures optimum system performance and coordination for all future testing and can highlight potential risks before a problem occurs.

An effective single-line diagram will clearly show how the main components of the electrical system are connected, including redundant equipment and available spares. It shows a correct power distribution path from the incoming power source to each downstream load – including the ratings and sizes of each piece of electrical equipment, their circuit conductors, and their protective devices.

Whether you have a new or existing facility, the single-line diagram is the vital roadmap for all future testing, service, and maintenance activities. As such, the single-line diagram is like a balance sheet for your facility and provides a snapshot of your facility at a moment in time.

2. Scope of SLD

To give you an accurate picture of your electrical system, the single-line diagram information normally includes:

    1. Incoming lines (voltage and size)
    2. Incoming main fuses, potheads, cutouts, switches, and main/tiebreakers
    3. Power transformers (rating, winding connection, and grounding means)
    4. Feeder breakers and fused switches
    5. Relays (function, use, and type)
    6. Current/potential transformers (size, type, and ratio)
    7. Control transformers
    8. All main cable and wire run with their associated isolating switches and potheads (size and length of run)
    9. All substations, including integral relays and main panels and the exact nature of the load in each feeder and on each substation
    10. Critical equipment voltage and size (UPS, battery, generator, power distribution, transfer switch, computer room air conditioning)

3. Uses & Significance

Single-line diagrams are used by several trades including Electrical, Mechanical, HVAC, and plumbing, but the electrical one-line diagram is the most common. HVAC and plumbing riser diagrams are essentially one-line diagrams, but they go by different names.

An electrical single-line diagram is a representation of a complicated electrical distribution system into a simplified description using a single line, which represents the conductors, to connect the components. Main components such as transformers, switches, and breakers are indicated by their standard graphic symbol. The overall diagram provides information on how the components connect and how the power flows through the system.

4. Flow Diagram of SLD

Few parameters are considered while designing the flow of a single-line diagram to keep it simple & readable:

    1. Remember to use a single line to represent multiple conductors.
    2. Diagrams should start at the top of the page with the incoming source of a system’s power.
    3. Electrical symbols must be used while drawing the single-line diagram to make it simple & concise.
    4. No physical location or size representation is required of the electrical equipment only ratings and breakers sizes with the other equipment to be used should be written.

5. Designing of SLD

To Design a single-line diagrams for your facility Some steps need to be taken:

    1. Create an inventory of all the utilities & equipment used in the building.
    2. Verify its existence and that they are adequately available.
    3. Confirm loads are connected to emergency/standby feeders.
    4. Verify potential single points of failure.
    5. Evaluate design redundancy of critical systems
    6. Make a report that outlines the findings by site along with recommended actions.
    7. Provide a copy of the single-line electrical diagram in AutoCAD format
    8. An up-to-date single-line diagram is vital for a variety of service activities including:
    9. Short circuit calculations, Coordination studies, Load flow studies, Safety evaluation studies, All other engineering Studies, Electrical safety procedures & Efficient maintenance, etc.

6. Calculations Requirements for SLD

6.1.     Identify the appropriate symbols:

To draw and understand a single-line diagram you first need to be familiar with the electrical symbols. This chart shows the most frequently used symbols. For electric power networks, an appropriate selection of graphic symbols is the most important step.

6.2.    Draw the required system:

To draw the electrical single line diagram first we need all the information on electrical equipment and the supply of receiving power. The most important information to include is:

          • Incoming service voltage
          • Equipment rated current
          • Identification of names of equipment
          • Bus voltage, frequency, phases, and short circuit current withstand ratings
          • Cable sizes, runs of cables, and lengths
          • Transformer connection type, kVA, voltages, and impedance
          • Generator voltage and kW
          • Motor HP
          • Current and Voltage ratios of instrument transformers
          • Relay device numbers

6.3.    Related calculations:

To represent the three-phase system in a single line diagram various other cal. are required:

          • Calculation Of generator reactance
          • Calculation Of transformer reactance
          • Calculation Of transmission-line reactance
          • Calculation Of reactance of motors and other equipment etc.

7. Software’s used 

7.1 AutoCAD

AutoCAD Electrical has a schematic library and a single line diagram sub-library. This enables the user to place two different representations down of the same component.

7.2 ETAP

ETAP Single-Line Diagram / View is an intelligent user interface to model, validate, visualize, analyze, monitor, and manage electrical power systems, from high to low voltage AC and DC networks.

7.3 Eco-dial

It is a low voltage electrical installation design software developed by Schneider Electric. it is a user-friendly software that helps you optimize equipment and costs while managing operating specifications, all along with the design of your power distribution projects.

7.4 Microsoft Visio

Visio Professional or Visio Plan 2 are used to create electrical and electronic schematic diagrams.


8. Benefits of SLD:

    • Help identify fault locations which identify when to perform troubleshooting & simplify troubleshooting
    • Identify potential sources of electric energy during the distribution process.
    • Accurate single line diagram will further ensure the safety of personnel work
    • Meets compliance with applicable regulations and standards
    • Ensure safe, reliable operation of the facility

9. Reference:


Maslow Hierarchy Theory

Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy theory of needs is one of the best-known theories of Motivation. Maslow’s theory states that our actions are motivated by certain physiological needs. It is often represented by a pyramid of needs, with the most basic needs at the bottom and more complex needs at the top. The hierarchy states that people are move eager to fulfill basic needs before moving on to other, more advanced needs.

The needs that are at the bottom of Maslow’s pyramid are the basic needs including the need for food, water, and sleep. Once you are met with these lower-level needs people move on to the next level of needs including safety and security.  Maslow believes that these needs play a major role in motivating behavior. There are five different levels of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, starting with the lowest level known as physiological Needs.

1.    Physiological Needs

The physiological needs are vital and very important for our survival. Some examples of Physiological needs are:

  1. Food
  2. Water
  3. Breathing
  4. Sex
  5. Sleep

If these needs are not satisfied human body will not function optimally in Maslow’s theory Physiological needs are considered as most important needs as all the other needs are secondary until these needs are met.

2.    Security and safety Needs

As now moving toward the second level of Maslow’s hierarchy, now the needs start to become a little more complex, the need for safety and security become primary.

  1. Health and wellness
  2. Safety against accidents and injury
  3. Emotional Security
  4. Financial security

People want control and order in their lives. So, the need for safety and security contributes largely to behaviors at this level. As they want to experience predictability and control in their lives. Finding a good job, obtaining health insurance and health care, contributing some money to a savings account for a better future, and moving into a safer neighborhood are all examples of actions motivated by security and safety needs.

3.    Social Needs (Love and Belonging)

The social needs in the hierarchy include such things as love, acceptance, and belonging. At this level, the need for emotional relationships drives human behavior. Some of the things that satisfy this need include:

  1. Friendships
  2. Romantic Attachments
  3. Family

Social needs are also one of the main factors in Maslow’s theory, as everyone needs love and belonging having social connections is related to better physical health and, conversely, feeling isolated. Importantly, this need encompasses both feeling loved and feeling love towards others.

4.    Esteem Needs

Now in the fourth level in Maslow’s hierarchy is the need for appreciation and respect. Once the need at the bottom three levels has been satisfied, esteem needs play a very important role in motivating behavior.

Maslow classified esteem needs into two categories:

  1. esteem for oneself (dignity, achievement, mastery, independence) and
  2. the desire for reputation or respect from others (e.g., status, prestige).

At this level, it becomes important to gain respect and appreciation for others.  People need to sense that they are valued by others and feel that they are making a contribution to the world.

5.    Self-actualization needs

At the very peak in Maslow’s hierarchy,  there are self-actualization needs. Now people are self-aware, concerned, very well know what’s right what’s wrong, less concerned with the opinions of others, and interested in fulfilling their needs.

“What a man can be, he must be,” Maslow explained, referring to the need people have to achieve their full potential as human beings.

This includes the urge to become what you are capable of becoming / what you have the potential to become. It also includes the desire for gaining more knowledge, social- service, creativity, and being aesthetic. The self-actualization needs are never fully satiable. As an individual grows psychologically, opportunities keep cropping up to continue growing.

6.     Conclusion

In conclusion, Abraham Maslow’s theory is very important and has a connection with the function of human resources. The physiological need is the basic needs that everyone has to perform then will proceed to the other needs which are safety needs that everyone feels safe in doing something and always is careful and then social needs that encourage people to communicate with everyone and supposedly don’t have to feel shy and everyone should have high self-esteem and the last one is self-actualization.

7.    References


Tuckman: Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing Model

  1. Introduction

Forming, Storming, Norming, performing model was first developed by Bruce Tuckman in 1965. It is one of the most common team development theories and had formed many ideas since its conception.

Tuckman’s theory focuses on the way how a team tackles a task from an initial stage to throughout to the completion of the project. Tuckman’s theory mainly focuses on Team Building Challenges. One of the most useful concepts of team building activities is that the team has an opportunity to observe their behaviour within a measurable time frame.  Tuckman said that these phases are all necessary and inevitable in order for a team to grow, face up to challenges, tackle problems, find solutions, plan work, and deliver results.

  1. Stages in Tuckman Theory

 2.1. Forming:

During the Forming stage, team members are usually very excited to be part of the team and eager about the work ahead. Members often have high positive expectations and attitudes for the team experience. At the same time, they may also feel some anxiety, wondering how they will fit into the team and if their performance will measure up or not. Forming stage has a lot of questions from team members as they are excited to work with the new team.

The forming stage is to create a team with goal directions and roles to work upon so that members can start building their trust. The energy level is very high in this stage and a good leader can help the members to work accordingly and focus on the goals.

2.2. Storming:

In the second stage as the team begins to move towards its goals member found that they are unable to get their goal due to this they are very frustrated and disappointed by the team’s performance due to these conflicts arises. There is a slight change in the behaviour as compared to stage one. During the Storming stage, team members may argue or become critical of the team’s original mission or goals. Members show their concerns as they are not able to meet their goals.

Now the team needs to refocus on their goals has to keep all the conflicts, disappointments aside and start all over again. The team may need to develop both task-related skills and group process and conflict management skills.

2.3. Norming:

In the third stage, the members start to resolve their issues as soon as they resolve and start again with the same excitement, they will see the team performing again and trying to reach their goal. Behaviours during the Norming stage may include members making a conscious effort to resolve problems and achieve group harmony. Communication is more fluent and meaningful teams may begin to develop their own language (nicknames) or inside jokes. Now they will enjoy working with each other.

Now members shift their energy to the team’s goals and show an increase in productivity, in both individual and collective work. The team may find that this is an appropriate time for an evaluation of team processes and productivity.

2.4. Performing:

In the fourth stage, members now start feeling satisfaction in their work as well as with teams’ performance. Now they are well aware of their strength and weaknesses, and they distribute work accordingly. As now they help each other Members feel confident in their individual abilities and those of their teammates. Roles on the team may have become more fluid, with members taking on various roles and responsibilities as needed. Differences among members are appreciated and used to enhance the team’s performance.

Team members should continue to deepen their knowledge and skills, including working to continuously improve team development. Accomplishments in team processes or progress are measured and celebrated.

Is the “Performing” stage the end of the process?

Working with a high-performing team is a truly pleasurable and growth experience. This is not the end of the process the team should still work and focus on new upcoming goals Changes, such as members coming or going or large-scale changes in the external environment, can lead a team to cycle back to an earlier stage. But if the changes are recognized and addressed directly, teams may successfully remain in the Performing stage indefinitely.

2.5. Adjourning:

Some teams do come to an end, when their work is completed or when the organization’s needs change. While not part of Tuckman’s original model, it is important for any team to pay attention to the end or termination process. Members may feel sad or have a sense of loss about the changes coming to their team relationships. And at the same time, the team will feel a sense of deep satisfaction at the accomplishments of the team.

During the last, some team members may become less focussed on the team’s tasks and their productivity may drop. Alternatively, some team members may be focused on the task and their task productivity may increase.


“5S” Plan in Office

  1. “5S”- An Introduction

The 5S methodology (Sort, Store, Shine, Standardize, Sustain) originated in Japan and was first implemented by The Toyota Motor Corporation. The methodology was developed to make just-in-time (JIT) manufacturing possible. The founder of 5S is a Japanese inventor Sakichi Toyoda. Implementation of 5s helps us know the amount of a product needed when needed. Therefore, having an organized workplace for the smooth running of a business is very important.

5S is an essential tools that can be applied in an organization. It results in a workplace that is clean, uncluttered, safe, and well organized to help reduce waste and optimize productivity. The 5s methodology is easy and understandable, and can be implemented in all types of companies- from manufacturing plants to offices, small businesses to large multinational organizations, and in both private and public sectors.

  1. “5S”- Implementation plan

2.1. Step 1: How Well is Your Business Doing?

The below  diagram helps us to illustrate how 5S can benefit any organization.

The below mentioned points can help in the self testing in any organization. If answer is yes to any of the following questions, it might be useful to implement 5S to benefit form its usefulness and effectiveness. So here are the checklist question:

      1. Do people in workplace struggle to locate documents or files, whether in physical or digital format?
      2. Are there loose, sagging electrical cables in the workplace?
      3. Are there files, drawers, and cabinets that are unlabeled, or do they contain unmarked content that is hard to identify?
      4. Does everybody know how to keep the workplace organized and are fully aware of their roles and responsibilities?


2.2 Step 2: The 5S Methodology: Broken Down 

      • Sort (Siri)-

The first step is to sort this means that all the unwanted things should be removed from the workstation. Eliminate all duplicates, unnecessary equipment, infrequently used items, and trash. This saves time, space, and labor costs. 

      • Store (Seiton)-

Now all the equipment that is needed assign a proper place for all equipment, work in progress, and raw materials, keeping ease of reach, identification, and proximity to work surface in mind as you do.

      • Shine (Seiso)-

Clean everything every day. Doing this keeps things ready to be used when needed. A clean workspace is a productive workspace, and Seiso means “to clean or shine.” Floor, walls, and equipment must be cleaned daily one must ensure that all items are restored to their designated place. One must make sure that his workplace is clean. This should be a part of your daily tasks and should not be postponed until it becomes a habit.

      • Standardize (Seiketsu)-

One must ensure the conditions of the work area do not return to the original, Make the above three 5’s part of your daily procedures each day. Implement them in your organization with the help of signs, banners, shadow boards, tool holders, etc. Make sure that all employees understand their roles and responsibilities and are empowered to perform all the tasks. 

      • Sustain (Shitsuke)-

Make a habit of properly maintaining correct procedures to avoid backsliding. Implementing these steps is a continuous process. It is important to ensure that they are done each day to prevent going back into old habits. The previous 4 steps must be Continued over time.

2.3. Step 3: The Action Plan

5s implementation can be done by giving training to employees to understand the system.

Firstly, to start with the top three 5s Requirements.

        • Take a picture of the Current Status of workplace.
        • Now sort the things that are needed and that are not needed.
        • Things should be organized in a proper way so that there is a designated place for everything.
        • Prepare list of items that downt have any use in current scenario and need to be sorted. This could be any items that is of no longer use, and need to be sorted basis donating them, recycling, or throwing them away.
        • Take second picture after the entire day’s work, for review.
        • After two weeks employees should take the third picture and compare it with the previous ones. Organizations must set up audits to check how the 5S principles are being met as well as to ensure the plan is moving forward.
        • After two months, again check how workplace looks and schedule another peer review.

By following above means, any organization can make sure that 5S is implemented successfully and everyone is following the procedure and contributing. This shall lead to a sense of responsibility to keep the place clean.

  1. Reference

RT-PCR Test for COVID 19

Less than a decade after the last human outbreak caused by a zoonotic coronavirus, the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in 2012, a novel coronavirus spillover had emerged in China in 2019 and now we are witnessing a deadly pandemic. A year later, India is now facing the second wave of covid 19, the nation is struggling hard to breathe out. Widespread testing for the SARS-CoV-2 virus is important to both slow the velocity of the virus and gain information about how widespread it is.

According to the regulatory authorities such as the FDA, Food & Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), RT-PCR is one of the most accurate laboratory testing methods for the current coronavirus pandemic. 

The real-time Reverse transcription-polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) test is primarily based on PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction), a process that repeatedly copies and amplifies the specific genetic fragments of the virus, ensuring that there is enough of a sample to conduct the analysis.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Working Principle

The principles behind every PCR are the same. Five cores ‘ingredients’ are required to set up a PCR, which are –

  1. The DNA template to be copied.
  2. Primers, short stretches of DNA that initiate the PCR reaction, designed to bind to either side of the section of DNA you want to copy.
  3. DNA nucleotide bases(also known as dNTPs). DNA bases (A, C, G, and T) are the building blocks of DNA and are needed to construct the new strand of DNA.
  4. Taq polymerase enzyme to add in the new DNA bases.
  5. Buffer to ensure the right conditions for the reaction.

How does the RT-PCR test work?

PCR involves a process of heating and cooling called thermal cycling which is carried out by a PCR machine.

  • There are three main stages:
  1. Denaturing– when the double-stranded template DNA is heated to separate it into two single strands.
  2. Extending – when the temperature is lowered to enable the DNA primers to attach to the template DNA.
  3. Annealing ­– when the temperature is raised, and the new strand of DNA is made by the Taq polymerase enzyme

These three stages are repeated 20-40 times, doubling the number of DNA copies each time. So by the end of the reaction, the size of the new strand becomes 220-240 of the initial strand. Reverse transcription PCR, or RT-PCR, allows the use of RNA as a template. An additional step allows the detection and amplification of RNA. The RNA is reverse transcribed into complementary DNA (cDNA), using reverse transcriptase. The quality and purity of the RNA template are essential for the success of RT-PCR. The first step of RT-PCR is the synthesis of a DNA/RNA hybrid. The single-stranded DNA molecule is then completed by the DNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity of the reverse transcriptase into cDNA. The efficiency of the first-strand reaction can affect the amplification process. From here on, the standard PCR procedure is used to amplify the cDNA. The possibility to revert RNA into cDNA by RT-PCR has many advantages. RNA is single-stranded and very unstable, which makes it difficult to work with.

The PCR machine in which the Polymerase Chain Reaction takes place is known as a Thermal cycler. It works with all the necessary chemicals. During the process, one of the processing chemicals produces a fluorescent signal which only gets activated above the threshold limit of amplification, i.e., only if the coronavirus is present in enough quantity in the body.

Steps Involved in RT-PCR Test

There are essentially three steps for an RT PCR test:

Step-1 Sampling

The RT-PCR test starts with a simple swab taken from inside a person’s throat or nose. A swab contains a soft tip on a long, flexible stick that is inserted into the nose of the person, who is to be tested. There are different types of nose swabs including nasal swabs that collect a sample immediately inside your nostrils and nasopharyngeal swabs that go further into the nasal cavity for collection. Either type of swab is sufficient for collecting material for the COVID-19 PCR test. After collection, the swab is sealed in a tube and then sent to a laboratory.

Step-2 Extraction

When a laboratory technologist receives the sample, they perform a process called extraction, which isolates genetic material from the sample including genetic material from any virus that may be present. Coronaviruses have RNA or ribonucleic acid as their genetic material. However, swabs from patients yield only a tiny quantity of RNA, which is not adequate for the testing process.

To overcome this problem, the RNA — a single-strand molecule — is converted into double-stranded DNA using an enzyme. This is known as reverse transcription.

Step-3 Polymerase chain reaction

Researchers select specific areas in the genome that do not mutate rapidly as the virus evolves and create copies of these using the PCR process.


Interpreting RT- PCR test results

positive test result means that it is very likely that the person has COVID-19. Most people have mild illnesses and can recover safely at home without medical care. It is advised to contact the healthcare providers if the symptoms get worse or if any questions or concerns arise.

negative test result means the person probably did not have COVID-19 at the time he/she took the test. However, it is possible to be infected with SARS-CoV-2 but not have enough virus in the body to be detected by the test. For example, this may happen if a person recently became infected, but does not have symptoms, yet; or it could happen if one has had COVID-19 for more than a week before being tested. 

Ups and Downs of COVID-19 PCR test

The main advantages of the COVID-19 PCR test are its accuracy and reliability. It is the most accurate test available for COVID-19 detection.

But it also has its downsides. Because the test can detect exceedingly small amounts of virus material, it can continue to detect fragments of the SARS-CoV-2 virus even after you have recovered from COVID-19 and are no longer contagious. So, people may continue to test positive even if they have had COVID-19 in the distant past, even though they cannot spread the SARS-CoV-2 virus to others.

Comparison with Antigen Test

Diagnostic tests:

  1. PCR test: This tests for the presence of the actual virus’s genetic material or its fragments as it breaks down. This is the most reliable and accurate test for detecting active infection.
  2. Antigen test: This test detects bits of proteins on the surface of the virus called antigens. Antigen tests are typically considered rapid, taking only 15 to 30 minutes but are less accurate than a PCR test. Rapid antigen tests are most accurate when used within a few days of the start of your symptoms, which is when the largest amount of virus is present in your body. Because this test is not as accurate as a PCR test, if an antigen test is negative, the healthcare provider may order a PCR test to confirm the negative test result.

The whole world is still struggling hard in the pandemic. The RT-PCR test plays a keys role to monitor the current situation. The accuracy of test results is really important in the first-line defense.  RT-PCR is currently the most accurate test which is used in the covid 19 diagnosis tests, but like any other tests, it is also not 100% accurate. The minimum sensitivity (ability to detect positives) demanded by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) for validating an RT-PCR test is 95%. That means up to 5% false-negative results are expected. Experts recommend Covid-19 treatment for everyone showing classic symptoms irrespective of RT-PCR results.


  1. https://www.apollohospitals.com/covid-19-rt-pcr-test/
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC154784/
  3. https://www.yourgenome.org/facts/what-is-pcr-polymerase-chain-reaction
  4. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diagnostics/21462-covid-19-and-pcr-testing
  5. https://theconversation.com/how-does-the-coronavirus-test-work-5-questions-answered-133118
  6. https://www.thehansindia.com/hans/opinion/news-analysis/covid-19-human-perspective-response-685138
  7. https://theprint.in/science/rt-pcr-antigen-antibody-truenat-all-you-need-to-know-about-the-different-covid-tests/448733/
  8. https://theprint.in/opinion/antibody-test-or-rt-pcr-both-needed-to-fight-covid-19-dont-rake-up-controversies/390290/


Carbon Dioxide Processing and Milk

Thermal treatment of food product is always related to high impact on their nutritional and organoleptic values and a times are not desirable specially in case of thermally sensitive food products. Most general practice in dairy industry is having high temperature short time (HTST) pasteurization practice where the liquid milk is subjected to high temperature having range of 70-78 Deg. C, which although reduce microbial load in milk but the milk is in risk of losing thermally sensitive nutrients and enzyme, off flavor development due to overheating and other changes in organoleptic factors.

High pressure carbon dioxide, also known as HPCD is an emerging technology being used for thermally sensitive food product. A type of pasteurization that can be an alternative to thermal pasteurization in food industry. This technique is considered as an alternate to pasteurization as this process has been known for bactericidal effect.

Solubility of Carbon Dioxide-

The amount of carbon dioxide in any solution is known as the concentration of carbon dioxide. There is always saturation level, i.e., the maximum amount of carbon dioxide that can be dissolved in any liquid, present which is exploited during processing. Carbonation is the term given to the process of addition of carbon dioxide in liquid.

During the milking stage, milk already consists of certain percentage of CO2 ~5 millimole but with time, the concentration drops as it equilibrate with the atmospheric CO2. The solubility of CO2 in milk is controlled by temperature and product viscosity. The more the temperature, less the diffusion of CO2 in milk but increase in viscosity helps in diffusing more gas in higher temperature product. With slight infusion of CO2, freezing point of milk can be brought down but is reversible until the infusion is moderate.

How Microbes react to HPCD-

What makes the CO2 to be antimicrobial? Well, the acidification property and solvent properties helps in attaining the goal, and maximum effect can be attained in the supercritical state. The liquid form of CO2 has greater solubility and can penetrate through the microbes and disrupts the cells. The acidifying property when is doubled with pressure the bactericidal effect. Depending on applying temperature and pressure, impact on microorganism can be altered

  1. At low pressure and low temperature carbon dioxide can inhibit the growth of pathogenic microbes and alters the pH of the medium which infers double attach to the growth of microbes.
  2. At high pressure and moderate temperature, carbon dioxide tends to attack the microorganism and inactivates by destroying its cells.

Parameter influencing –

The process parameters such as temperature, pressure, time of exposure and agitation affects the overall shelf life of product in case of carbon dioxide processing.

  1. Temperature- Higher temperature facilitates the higher diffusion and penetration of carbon dioxide in the microorganism cells leading to more lethal effect on present microorganisms. But the optimal range is to be kept in mind while providing heat to the product as the higher temperature leads to less solubility of carbon dioxide in product. From past research it has been evident that temperature range of about 20- 45 Deg. C is optimal for carbon dioxide treatment.
  2. Pressure- When pressure is increased it has been noted that less exposure time is required for the deactivation of microorganism. Also fast depressurization also helps in the cause.
  3. Agitation- In case of no agitation, only the periphery microorganism shall come in contact with the carbon dioxide present in product hence, constant agitation facilitates the contact of carbon dioxide and microorganism hence high chances that the all microorganism in product is deactivated.

There has been almost hundreds of bacteria identified in the raw milk. All have different characteristics, and each have differently impacted when subjected to various processing conditions. The product composition also have important role to play on the shelf life and treatment effects. The statement is backup with various previous and ongoing studies. Addition of certain amount of starch didn’t affected the bactericidal effect of CO2 while presence of whey protein affects negatively on the efficiency of carbon dioxide processing. Also lower water content also reduces efficiency of CO2 treatment as it act as a protective barrier for microbial cells. Salt also affects the kill efficiency- Lower salt reduces the potency while higher salt concentration facilitates the kill efficiency of carbon dioxide processing.

To conclude, listing some of the attributes that can benefit the commercializing of carbon dioxide processing of food products.

  1. Low fat content
  2. High Water activity
  3. Low to moderate sugar content
  4. Alcohol and protein content
  5. Low pH and
  6. Low viscosity

Skimmed liquid milk fits precisely in this category and thick dairy products are hard to treat with the carbo dioxide pasteurization technique.

All studies till date conducted, including product shelf life, effect on food product, and others are of laboratory level which is the holding back point for this technology. Need of the time is to carry out extensive research on the utilization in commercial level so that the benefits can be fully commercialized.


Pulsed Electric Field

Food-processing industry has made large investments in processing facilities relying mostly on conventional thermal processing technologies with well-established reliability and efficacy. Food contains many heat sensitive nutrients which include vitamins, minerals, and nutrients having functional properties such as pigments, antioxidants, bioactive compounds. Many processes during manufacturing of food cause detrimental effects on these nutrients. Therefore, retention of these nutrients in food products requires innovative approaches for process design because of their sensitivity to a variety of physical and chemical factors, which causes either loss of biological functionality, chemical degradation and premature or incomplete release. Alternative methods for thermal processing of food are gaining importance, due to increased consumer demand for new methods of food processing that have a reduced impact on nutritional content and overall food quality. Also because of the increasing consumer demand for minimally processed fresh-like food products with high sensory and nutritional qualities, there is a growing interest in non-thermal processes for food processing and preservation.

Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) is one such widely used novel non-thermal technology for food preservation. PEF is a mild food preservation technique making use of short electric pulses of variable intensities yielding few to no detrimental effects on quality attributes in pumpable foods such as fruit juices, liquid eggs, jams, soups, milk, yogurt etc., but with advancement, this technology have become friendly for solid foodstuff too.

Working Principle

The process is based on electroporation, which generates high voltage (10–80 kV/cm) pulses into foods placed between two electrodes for short time at ambient temperature, then packaged aseptically and distributed in refrigerated condition. Food is exposed to electrical field of treatment chamber leading to the opening of pores in tissue mass. This process attains a 5 log reduction on most pathogenic bacteria by rupturing the cell membranes in liquid media. Inactivation of microorganisms occurs due to generation of shock wave generated by an electric arc that stimulate the formation of highly reactive free radicals from chemical species in food. It causes only minimal detrimental changes to the physical and sensory properties in foods, helping in retaining ‘fresh’ quality and assists in nutrient retention.

Treatment Affecting Factors  

  • Electric field strength- Strength of electric field depends on type of food and microorganism to be treated.
  • Processing time- Varies with microorganism.
  • Treatment temperature
  • pH-Low acidic foods are preferred but not limited to them
  • Ionic Strength
  • Conductivity of the medium
  • Type of microorganism present in food media


Construction of PEFs machine involves a pulsed power supply, treatment chamber that converts the pulsed voltage into PEF and a control panel

  • High voltage Pulse Generator: This unit provides a maximum of 2.5 kV pulses. The instrument consists of a capacitor (7 F), charge and discharge switches, and a wave controller. The wave controller may be connected to the electroporator to improve the discharge pattern. Treatment cuvettes with a 0.1-cm electrode gap and l00 L volume may be used for PEF treatments, which give a maximum intensity of approximately 25 kV/cm. Appropriate voltage and current monitors should be attached to it.The frequency, shape and amplitude of the pulses result in the intensity of the treatment.
  • Treatment chamber: PEF treatment chamber may be static or continuous which consists of two electrodes, with insulating materials in between that acts as an enclosure containing food materials. Uniform electric fields can be achieved by parallel plate electrodes with a gap sufficiently smaller than the electrode surface dimension. The chamber also contains a spacer, and two lids. Each electrode is made of stainless steel, whereas the spacer and lids are made of polysulfone. The distance between two electrodes is termed as the treatment gap of the PEF Chamber. A flow channel was provided between the two electrodes to eliminate dead corners as well as to ensure uniform treatment. The electric field may be applied in the form of exponentially decaying square waves, bipolar, oscillating pulses at ambient, sub ambient, or slightly above ambient temperature. Cooling of the chamber is accomplished by circulating water at a selected temperature through jackets built into the two stainless steel electrodes.
  • Control System for monitoring Process Parameter: It consists of two major devices:
    1. Oscilloscope: It measures the voltage across the treatment chamber and shows the output voltage shape.
    2. Temperature Probe: Sample temperature is measured with a thermal probe placed inside the treatment chamber.

Field of Applications

  1. Improved quality of Potato chips and finger fries with less fat content: PEF pre-treated potatoes enables cutting at optimum product texture which results in smooth surfaces, reduced starch loss, less damage and less absorption of oil/fat by potato chips and fries.
  2. Drying: PEF facilitates rapid removal of moisture from cell matrix.
  3. Wastewater Treatment: PEF burst cells are more susceptible to other biological and chemical processes such as anaerobic digestion, which significantly reduces solid waste content in wastewater. Thus reducing the treatment time for wastewater.
  4. Efficient Extraction of Fruit Juices: Reports suggests, PEF treated apples and carrots are found to be producing more juice as their cell mass gets disintegrated which is the essential pre requisite for solid liquid separation during juice extraction from fruits and vegetables.

As this process include wide benefits like maintaining the product quality without thermal and mechanical stress, not degrading the nutrient properties, not producing any harmful by product, increasing the extraction yield by softening of tissues, it involves certain limitation such as its limited effects on microbial spores and its ineffectiveness on foods that have higher or variable electrical conductivity. Traditional thermal processing techniques for preserving foods leads to destruction of heat sensitive ingredients such as vitamins, which is helpful in promoting health. Therefore, PEF can be seen as the promising replacement, which allows the preservation of heat sensitive food products for which fresh taste is the main quality parameter, without or with only minor detrimental effects on the quality.