Reverse Osmosis: Application in Zero liquid discharge


In water-short areas, wastewater reclamation has emerged as a practical option. Water shortage has emerged as a major issue as the world’s population grows and natural water supplies get depleted. It has been forecasted that the global demand for freshwater will exceed the supply by 40% by 2030.

It is expected that water scarcity will increase from about one-third to nearly half of the global urban population in 2050. Recovery and recycling of wastewater have become a growing trend in the past decade due to rising water demand. Most of the cost-effective water purification has been made possible via membrane treatment. Reverse Osmosis membranes have been demonstrated to significantly reduce total dissolved solids, organic pollutants, viruses, bacteria, heavy metals, and other dissolved contaminants.

Wastewater reuse, not only reduces the quantity and environmental threat of discharged wastewater, but it also alleviates the impact on ecosystems generated by freshwater withdrawal. Wastewater is no longer regarded as pure waste that may harm the environment if recycled, but rather as an additional resource that can be used to achieve water sustainability.

2. What is Reverse Osmosis?

Reverse osmosis (RO) is a membrane-based separation method that uses difference in the permeability of the water’s constituents. The membranes are made of a synthetic substance that is semipermeable; some constituents pass through it very easily, while others pass through it less readily.

To remove a constituent from water, water is forced across the surface of a membrane, resulting in product separation, which is why reverse osmosis (RO) is the best of all membrane filtration methods.

Schematic diagram of the Reverse osmosis process


The RO technique is utilized to remove dissolved solids because traditional municipal treatment methods are unable to do so. In chemical and environmental engineering, RO is increasingly employed as a separation process to eliminate organics and organic contaminants from wastewater. 

  1. Application of Reverse osmosis

 The use of reverse osmosis in wastewater treatment is limited by the high running costs caused by membrane contamination. In the case of industrial wastewater, RO has been employed in industries where it is possible to increase process efficiency by recovering valuable components that can be recycled in the manufacturing process.

An RO plant for industrial usage has the following goals:

  • 50% desalination of seawater and brackish water
  • 40% ultrapure water production for the electronic, pharmaceutical, and energy production industries and
  • 10% decontamination systems for urban and industrial water.


Some common applications of RO system include the following:

 (a) Desalination of the sea and brackish water.

 (b) Generation of high-purity water for pharmaceuticals.

 (c) Generation of ultrapure fresh water for microelectronics.

 (d) Generation of processed water for beverages (beer, bottled water, fruit juices, etc.);

 (e) Processing of dairy products.

 (f) Waste treatment for the recovery of process materials such as metals for metal finishing industries and dyes used in the manufacture of textiles.

 (g) Water reclamation of municipal and industrial wastewater.

  1. How does Reverse Osmosis work?

In Reverse osmosis, cellophane-like membranes separate pure water from polluted water. When pressure is applied to the concentrated side of the membrane, purified water is forced into the dilute side, and the rejected impurities from the concentrated side being washed away in the rejected water.


Permeate (or product) water is desalinated water that has been demineralized or deionized. The reject (or concentrate) stream is the water stream that contains the concentrated pollutants that did not pass through the RO membrane.

Salts and other contaminants are not allowed to pass through the semi-permeable membrane as the feed water enters the RO membrane under pressure (enough pressure to overcome osmotic pressure), and they are discharged through the reject stream (also known as the concentrate or brine stream), which goes to the drain or, in some cases, can be fed back into the feed water supply to be recycled through the RO system to save water.

Permeate or product water is the water that passes through the RO membrane and typically has 95% to 99% of the dissolved salts removed from it.

4.1. Stages of RO systems


Every RO system includes different types of filtrations. There are many filtration stages in a RO system. In addition to the RO membrane, every reverse osmosis water system also includes a sediment filter and a carbon filter. Depending on whether the filters are used before or after the membrane, the filters are referred to as prefilters or post-filters.

Each type of system contains one or more of the following filters:

      • Sediment filterfilters out particles such as dirt, dust, and rust
      • Carbon filterReduces the amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), chlorine, and other pollutants in water that give it an unpleasant taste or odor.
      • Semi-permeable membraneup to 98% of the total dissolved solids.


4.2. Technical Requirements of a RO System

Several fundamental technical prerequisites for a RO system include:

      • Feed water needs to be prefiltered and pH adjusted. After prefiltration, the feed water’s TDS and suspended particles should be kept under the specified ranges.
      • The microbiological quality of feed and product water should be monitored. If microbiological quality levels are exceeded, the system should be cleaned.
      • Before disinfection, every system component needs to be mechanically cleaned. To ensure that chemicals used in disinfection are eliminated from the system, the proper tests should be run.
      • It is best to avoid using filters or ion exchangers downstream of RO units.
      • The chemical and microbiological quality of water should be evaluated at predetermined intervals during a production cycle.
      • The RO system should be constructed for continuous flow without traps, dead ends, and pipe sections that may gather stagnant water. Installation of in-line conductivity sensors at strategic locations is necessary for ongoing water quality monitoring. The equipment should be qualified, and the RO system should be validated periodically, as well as operated and maintained according to the manufacturer’s instructions so that it can consistently produce water with acceptable quality.


5. What contaminants will Reverse Osmosis remove from water?

Reverse osmosis may remove up to 99%+ of dissolved salts (ions), particles, colloids, organics, bacteria, and pyrogens from the feed water.

  • However, the RO system cannot remove 100% of bacteria and viruses.

Contaminants are rejected by a RO membrane based on their size and charge. A properly operating RO system will generally reject any contamination with a molecular weight greater than 200. (For comparison a water molecule has a MW of 18). Similarly, the higher the contaminant’s ionic charge, the less probable it is to flow through the RO membrane.

6. ZLD combined with RO

RO is a technique for cleansing contaminated water using a membrane and a pressure unit. Furthermore, RO generates a large amount of liquid discharge, i.e. saline water. The Zero Liquid discharge system is used to limit discharge into streams and create a self-sustaining system with zero effluents.



Zero-liquid discharge (ZLD) is a water treatment technique that purifies and recycles all wastewater, resulting in zero discharge at the end of the treatment cycle. It is a cutting-edge wastewater treatment technique that combines ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, evaporation/crystallization.

ZLD eliminates any liquid waste from exiting the plant or facility perimeter, with most of the water recovered for reuse. ZLD eliminates the danger of pollution associated with wastewater discharge and maximizes water usage efficiency, achieving a balance between freshwater resource exploitation and aquatic environment protection.

In order to increase energy and cost savings, reverse osmosis (Ro) has been added into ZLD systems. However, while RO is far more energy efficient than thermal evaporation.

Reverse osmosis for ZLD/MLD is constantly evolving, and the most efficient plants now have two concentration stages. The filtered wastewater is first forced through semi-permeable membranes at pressures of up to 80 bar, which reduces the water content by 40 to 50%. The liquid is forced through membranes at ultra-high pressures of up to 120 bar during the second step of the process, which reduces the water content by an additional 30 to 40%. It means that by the time the concentrate enters the brine concentrator following the two-stage reverse osmosis process, the water content has been decreased by up to 60%.


  1. Conclusion

RO is the best and most efficient desalination technique available today. The goal is to use RO to recover as much water from evaporation as feasible. Evaporation and Crystallisation is the most basic type of ZLD system, aiming for 90% water recovery and 100% crystallisation.

RO is currently the best and most energy efficient desalination method available. The goal is therefore to recover as much water as possible before evaporation using RO. As RO recovery rises, the cost of ZLD decreases.

Since water supplies are increasingly scarce, reuse options are growing in popularity. In this perspective, zero-liquid discharge (ZLD) is a new strategy for reducing waste, recovering resources, treating toxic industrial waste streams, and helping minimize water quality consequences in receiving water streams.

Although ZLD systems can reduce water contamination and increase water supply, their industrial-scale applications are limited due to their high cost and high energy consumption. Membrane-based technologies are an appealing future solution for industrial wastewater reclamation in ZLD systems.

8. Reference :

Introduction to Pipe sizes and pipe schedule

  1. Introduction

Pipe size calculation is necessary for planning and identifying the pipe to be utilized during project execution. The size of the pipe is determined primarily by

  1. the flow rate required,
  2. the pressure of the piping system, and
  3. the end connection equipment.

Identification of pipe size is vital for transmitting the exact idea from the piping design team to the piping execution team for using the correct pipe size for spool production. Pipe size also has a significant impact on cost. Oversizing a pipe result in additional costs, more complex pipe design, more footing, and, in some cases, process difficulties.

In the field of engineering, there are many and varied materials & types of pipes used, each   with their own unique credentials, and often with their own sizing. This results in some confusion in the industry around the outside diameter of piping, and the sizing of required pipe supports. That is why understanding to pipe sizing is very important.

Pipe size in referred in various terms like – Nominal Diameter (DN), Nominal Pipe Size (NPS), or Nominal Bore (NB). However, despite having certain similarities and variances in terms of their uses and places of origin, these are all notations for pipe sizes.

  1. Pipe sizing

Pipe size is specified with two non-dimensional numbers,

      • Nominal Pipe Size (NPS)
      • Schedule Number (SCH)

And the relationship between these numbers determines the inside diameter of a pipe.

  • Nominal pipe size and its importance


The Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) is a North American standard size for pipes that are suitable for high or low pressures and temperatures. It defines the diameter of pipe. Nominal pipe size only refers to the outside diameter (OD) of a pipe. When it is said that pipe size is 2 NPS, it indicates any pipes with an outer diameter of 2.375-inch (or 60.3 mm), regardless of wall thickness and hence internal diameter.

Nominal pipe sizing

Nominal Bore (NB) and Nominal Diameter (DN) are sometimes used alternately with Nominal Pipe Size (NPS). Nominal Bore (NB) is the European equivalent for NPS. The Nominal Diameter (DN) for NPS 5 and larger is equal to the NPS multiplied by 25.

Pipe size illustration

2.1.1 Nominal diameter (DN): The Nominal Diameter (DN), is frequently referred to as “mean or average outer diameter.” The metric unit system uses nominal diameter, sometimes known as Diameter Nominal (DN). The pipe’s Inner Diameter (ID) and Outer Diameter (OD) are not equal to the nominal diameter.

Although not exactly equal, the value of DN is close to the inner diameter of the pipe. The connecting dimensions of pipes and pipe fittings are denoted using this notation. Pipes come in a variety of DN sizes, and using standard tables and pipe schedule charts, the DN is used to determine the pipe’s final dimensions.

NPS vs DN measurement

2.1.2 Nominal Bore (NB): A European standard for indicating pipe size is Nominal Bore, or NB. In the case of pipes, the terms bore, and nominal refer to hollow structures, respectively. The nominal bore is a rough internal measurement across the diameter of the pipe. In other terms, a nominal bore refers to the pipe’s bore’s approximation in size.

 A pipe is exactly 10.75 inches long when measured in inches; hence, 10.75′′ x 25.4 = 273.05 mm. This is the reason why the outside diameter is not a straightforward number like 250NB.

Pipe Size Indication

  1. What is schedule Number?

The wall thickness of the pipe is described using steel pipe schedules. This crucial variable as it is directly related to the strength of the pipe and the suitability for specific applications.  Given the design pressure and permitted stress, a pipe schedule is a dimensionless number which is derived using the design formula for wall thickness.

Pipe wall thickness is determined by pipe schedule. The mechanical strength of the pipe increases as the wall thickness, allowing it to withstand higher design pressures.

Schedule number = P/S

  • P is the service pressure in (psi)
  • S is the allowable stress in (psi)

Two pipes of the same diameter with different schedules will have different wall thicknesses. So, when specifying a pipe for a high-pressure application, a larger number signifies a larger schedule (wall thickness).

Pipe schedule illustration

The schedule numbers 40 and 80 are the most popular ones. As the schedule number increases, the wall thickness of the pipe increases. Since there has been advancement of industrial age, pipe sizes and their standard has also been changed. There is wide range of wall thicknesses: SCH 5, 5S, 10, 10S, 20, 30, 40, 40S, 60, 80, 80S, 100, 120, 140, 160, Standard (STD), Extra Strong (XS) AND Double Extra Strong (XXS).

Steel pipe schedules are a way to specify the pipe’s wall thickness. This is an important metric since it is directly related to the pipe’s strength and applicability for various applications. A pipe schedule is a dimensionless number that is calculated using the design formula for wall thickness and the permissible stress.

4.  Conclusion

Pipe sizing is one of the first important actions a process engineer performs throughout the P&ID preparation process.  Pipe size is a key consideration in a well-designed process. It will have an impact on fluid velocity, pressure drop, flow regime, and so on. A poorly sized pipe can disrupt the entire process and, in extreme situations, lead to plant shutdown That is why one should always know about the differences between Nominal pipe sizes and pipe schedule numbers.

5.  Reference

Introduction to Air Quality standards for the classification of Compressed air quality

  1. Introduction

ISO (International Standards Organisation) is the world’s largest developer and publisher of international standards. An intermediary between the public and private sectors, ISO is a non-governmental organization. It has developed international standards to test the quality of compressed air. There are now three standards in use that are specifically related that directly relate to compressed air quality (purity) and testing:

  1. ISO8573 Series
  2. ISO12500 Series
  3. ISO7183

The most used standard is the ISO8573 Series and in particular ISO8573-1:2010. The ISO air quality standard measures three types of contaminants present in compressed air: water, oil content, and solid particles. It does not consider microorganisms and gases.

2.     What is compressed air quality & why it is needed?

When air is gathered to be compressed, more particles are also gathered, resulting in contaminated air. When air is compressed, the number of impurities present exponentially rises. Additionally, when compressing air, other pollutants could be included. To clean up the compressed air system’s pollutants, air treatment is required. The types of contaminants found in a compressed air system include:

  1. Solid particles / Dust
  2. Water (in liquid or vapor form)
  3. Oil content (in vapor or aerosol form)

Schematic presentation of contaminants present in compressed air

When air is adequately treated, it is considered clean and safe. However, the quality of compressed air is determined not just by how clean it is, but also by how dry it is. The number of particles of a specified size present in one cubic meter of air, the dew point, and the number of oil aerosols and vapor must all be counted to assess how clean and dry the compressed air is.

Compressed air is utilized in a variety of industries, including mining, manufacturing, textile manufacturing, and food processing. The air quality utilized in industrial applications has a direct impact on the work process, installed machines, and product quality. As a result, it is critical that the compressed air be clean and devoid of pollutants.

The smaller the chance of contamination, breakdowns, and product rejection, the cleaner the air. This is especially important in businesses like food and beverage and pharmaceuticals. There is a possibility that the air will come into direct touch with the product or will come into indirect contact with the packaging.

  1. Classification of Compressed air quality

Compressed air is the only utility created by the end user of all the key utilities used in the food manufacturing setting. This means that the end-user has a direct impact on the quality of this energy source.

High-quality compressed air is essential for producing food that is not only cost-effective to process but also safe to consume. Therefore, choosing the appropriate compressed air equipment for food processors is in the best interests of everyone. The basis for choosing air treatment products is made much easier by the ISO 8573 air quality standards and ISO 12500 compressed air filter standards.


      Standards used for air quality measurement

  1. What is ISO 8573 & how it defines different air purity classes?

ISO 8573 is the compressed air quality standard. ISO8573 is a series of international standards that address compressed air quality (or purity). Part 1 of the standard describes the compressed air quality requirements, and parts 2 through 9 detail the testing techniques for various pollutants.

  • ISO 8573-1: Contaminants & purity classes
  • ISO 8573-2: Oil aerosol test methods
  • ISO 8573-3: Humidity test methods
  • ISO 8573-4: Solid particle test methods
  • ISO 8573-5: Oil vapor test methods
  • ISO 8573-6: Gas test methods
  • ISO 8573-7: Viable microbiological content tests
  • ISO 8573-8: Solid particle test methods by mass concentration
  • ISO 8573-9 Liquid water test method


       Various air quality classes


This above standard also determines air quality, which is designated by the following nomenclature: Compressed Air Purity Classes A, B, C:
A= Solid particle class designation
B= Humidity and liquid water class designation
C= Oil class designation

Air quality designation

5.     Why is it important to consider the air quality?

Compressed air can contain unwanted substances, such as water in drop or vapor form, oil in drop or aerosol form, and dust. Depending on the compressed air’s application area, these substances can impair production results and even increase costs. Air treatment aims to produce the compressed air quality specified by the consumer. When the role of compressed air in a process is clearly defined, finding the system that will be the most profitable and efficient in that specific situation is simple. This will be determined by your finished product and the working environment of your application.

6.     What does Class 0 mean for air quality?

It is recommended that only compressed air classified as Class 0 be used in critical processes to eliminate the risk of air contamination. This level of classification does not mean zero contamination. Class 0 refers to the highest air quality possible with minimum contamination present in the air and must be lower in contamination than Class 1.

A combination of compressed air equipment can be installed to produce clean air. This may include various air filters and dryers. Identifying which contaminants need to be removed will help you to determine which equipment you need.

  1. Conclusion:

A specific compressed air class is assigned depending on the number of contaminants found. The air quality class is set according to ISO 8573-1. This standardized system defines parameters from the least to most contaminated sources of compressed air. These standards are very much useful when it comes to selecting air compressors/ compressed air systems for industrial purposes. As Compressed air is a vital energy source and is utilized in multiple operations in a food processing facility.

When properly treated, compressed air is regarded as a safe, clean utility, as compared to other energy sources. It is ultimately used to package, wrap, seal, palletize and label food products prior to storage or shipment. ISO 8573 is a European Standard that describes contaminants in compressed air and defines purity classes for them. This multi-part standard also defines approved measurement methods for testing contamination levels.

  1. Reference


Casein Powder Processing

  1. Overview 

In milk, Casein is the most important protein component, both nutrition-wise and quantity-wise, accounting for almost 80 % of milk’s total nitrogen. It can be defined as the protein which get precipitated from the milk at a pH of 4.6. It is a rich source of essential amino acids. Cow’s milk has the major quantity of casein and comprises almost 80% of the total protein content, while the rest 20% is whey or serum proteins. Casein has an industrial use – in the production of paper, textiles, paint, and leather-based industries.

The two methods from where commercial casein can be manufactured from skimmed milk – The first one would be through precipitation by acid and the other one would be through coagulation by rennet. As much of the fat, whey proteins, lactose, and other minerals should be removed through multi-stage washing in water as they can reduce the quality of the finished casein as well as the storage quality. After drying, finished casein have relatively good storage quality and can  be used in the food and chemical industries.

Casein protein is derived from milk, just like whey protein. Milk has both protein in a 4:1 ratio, in fact, the composition of milk is 80% casein and 20% whey but there would be a major difference in the absorption rate of both these proteins. Casein is basically slow digesting and will stay in the bloodstream for a few hours, this provides a constant supply of the essential amino acids required for a human body. Casein has actually cemented its importance and identity in the supplement and medication industry for genuine reasons.

Amount of casein in different categories of milk.

Casein powder processing flow chart 


2. Separation of Casein 

Easy separation is possible for casein from milk by increasing the acidic value of milk. Milk can be made more acidic by simply adding acid to it or by the addition of bacteria (such as Streptococcus thermophiles, Lactobacillus, acidophilus, and Lactobacillus bulgaricus)  which will produce lactic acid. These bacteria use a process called as Fermentation process in which they will take energy from lactose (milk-based sugar). The byproduct i.e, lactic acid will make the milk more acidic. As a result, Curd (casein protein) will be formed in the form of lumps. That casein protein can be collected and can be turned back into solution form by adding sodium hydroxide or any other alkali, this re-dissolved solution is known as Caseinate which can be sold as it is in the markets or can be processed further in milk or dairy processing plants.

Dry casein powder

Typical levels of the major colloidal and soluble components in bovine whole milk.


3. Dry Casein Production

Two types of caseins are there; Rennet casein and Acid casein.

Acid casein can be easily formed by making the skimmed milk acidic until it reaches the isoelectric point (pH± 4.6). For Rennet casein, the process used will be enzymatic coagulation. Both of these products are created by the effect of a reaction between the acid casein curd and acid casein powder with alkali (sodium hydroxide).

Caseinate is used more often in comparison to casein when it comes to its use in food industries because casein is less soluble than caseinate.

Casein (Curd)

3.1- Acid Casein 

Raw Material

  • For Acid casein production low-fat skimmed milk will be used because the shelf life of casein depends upon the amount of fat in the milk.
  • Low-fat milk should be skimmed properly because the microorganisms present in the milk can directly affect the consistency and also the color of casein that’s why the quality of raw skimmed milk matters a lot.
  • The milk should not be heated too much. Due to this, the chances of unwanted chemical reactions can take place within the components of milk which can lead to dark casein.
  • To get good quality casein and to prevent these things from happening, the milk should be microfiltered besides being pasteurized.



The raw skimmed milk should be pasteurized for 15-20 seconds at a temperature of 72deg.c.


To reach the isoelectric point of casein through acidification, that point lies between pH 4 and 4.8. The hydrogen ions present will lift the negatively charged ions of casein micelles, as a result, coagulation of casein micelles will find a place.

The acidification can take place in two ways:

(a)- Inorganic Acidification

Later on, Skimmed milk will be cooled down to about 32°C after pasteurization. pH value of the skimmed milk will be lowered between 4.3 and 4.6 by the addition of hydrochloric acid. Then, the mixture formed will be heated up with the help of a heat exchanger at a temperature of 40°C to 45°C and will be kept on hold at the same temperature for about 120 seconds. Within this period of time, the casein aggregates are formed.

(b)- Biological Acidification

In this process, skimmed milk will be cooled down to about 25°C after pasteurization. A non-gas-forming mesophilic starter is added, which basically ensures a desired decrease in the pH value in approximately 15 hours. This acidification process should progress too fast, as this may lead to uneven quality and a reduced yield. After reaching the desired pH value, the mix is stirred then heated up using a heat exchanger and kept on hold at a temperature of 50°C to 55°C.


Decanter and Washing

A decanter centrifuge separates solids from one or two liquid phases in one single continuous process. This is done using centrifugal forces that can be well beyond 3000 times greater than gravity. A decanter centrifuge separates solids from one or two liquid phases in one single continuous process. This is done using centrifugal forces that can be well beyond 3000 times greater than gravity.

Here in casein processing, a decanter will be used to remove the whey before starting the washing process so that less water is required. In the next step, the casein will be washed at a temperature of 35°C to 60°C in a three step-counter washer using water to remove whey proteins, lactose, and salts. After each step, a part of the washing water is separated into the decanter of the casein. And in the last step, the centrifugation process produces casein with a dry matter content of about 45 percent and now the product we got, is ready to be sent to the dryer.


With the application of using hot air, the casein will be dried until the moisture content gets reduced to 12 percent. The drying process for casein can be done in several ways. In the two-stage drying process, the temperature of the first step is between 50°C to 55°C and in the second stage, the temperature will be increased up to 65°C.


When the casein gets totally dried, the casein will be ground into a powder with a particle size of about 0.32mm, 0.42mm or 0.64mm.


3.2- Caseinate 


Caseinate can be made from acidic casein, acidic casein curd, or powder. But preference is given to the acid casein curd, regardless of the raw material being used. By adding water, the content of dry matter is reduced between 18 to 24 percent. Otherwise, the viscosity of the solution goes too high, because it consists of only protein.

Wet Grinding

The process of wet-grinding is done at a temperature below 45deg.c because if the temperature would be on the higher side then there are chances of causing re-agglomeration. The slurry formed will be connected in a tank equipped with a mixer of higher scale. Akali is been added to the slurry very carefully to reach the 6.7 pH value. This pH value is the viscosity of the solution at its lowest.

Which caustic solution is used depends on the product that has to be produced.

  • Sodium Caseinate

For the production of Sodium caseinate, a 10% aqueous sodium hydroxide solution is used. For this specific purpose, Sodium Bicarbonate or Sodium Phosphate solution can be used. After reaching the desired pH, the whole should be warmed as quickly as possible to 60 to 75°C. The viscosity would otherwise increase too much. The dissolving of the lye takes 30 to 60 minutes to complete.

  • Calcium Caseinate

Dissolving a Calcium Hydroxide solution is much more time-consuming compared to the caustic soda solution. That is why casein is often first dissolved in ammonia. Then, in sucrose, dissolved calcium hydroxide is added and the calcium caseinate mixture is wash dried. Most of the ammonia evaporates during the drying process.


To make the Caseinate solution that will be suitable to be sprayed, it has to be first preheated at a temperature between 80 to 90°C. By this, the viscosity of the solution is kept as low as possible and can be worked with a solution having a dry matter content of up to 24%.


The preference is given to nebulize using a nozzle because the dry matter content of the product to be dried is low. It is recommended to complete the dryer process in two steps. The sodium caseinate has to be dried in a spray-drying tower at an air temperature between 200deg.c to 230deg.c to a moisture content of 10% to 12%, the rest of the extra moisture content is reduced using a fluidized bed-type dryer. 

  1. Food safety and Hygienic Design 

Most dairy processes take place at a relatively high pH and under wet conditions, which create an ideal environment for a variety of micro-organisms to grow – such as disease-causing micro-organisms. It is therefore important that the entire system is built according to hygienic design standards – so it is cleanable to a microbial level. After the cleaning process, disinfection can kill off any remaining vegetative microorganisms.

In case, the machinery cannot be emptied fully, the equipment will lose its clean status, even after it has been cleaned but was set aside for a certain period of time. The machinery has to be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected before the production process can start again.




Lactose Powder Processing

Lactose is one of the main constituents of animal milk, acting as an energy carrier in milk. And due to its physiological and functional characteristics, lactose made in the industries is being used on a large scale in the food category and in the pharmaceutical industries. Lactose is made from whey, a byproduct of casein production and cheese making, by crystallizing the oversaturated solution of whey concentrate. The world’s production amounts to almost 500,000 tons and more. Lactose is the most abundant constituent after water, also the main carb in the milk of virtually all mammalian species.

Lactose content in dairy foods.

Cow milk has 4% to 5% lactose, so a large part of the dry matter content of the milk is covered by lactose. Pure lactose forms large, hard crystals which have a low solubility. For these reasons, lactose is also known as sand sugar. 

Uses of lactose

    • Lactose is massively used in the food and pharmaceutical industries.
    • In food industries, it is used for relative sweetness and being a source of energy.
    • Lactose maintains the crystallized sugar texture without causing the food to become too sweet.
    • Lactose is used in the confectionery industry to produce caramel flavors through the Maillard reaction, usually with milk proteins, often added with lactose in the form of sweetened condensed milk.
    • Lactose can be used in many products, like dairy products, dried soups, and sauces, jam, mayonnaise, and candy.
    • Lactose applications range from an energy source for lactic acid bacteria during dairy product fermentation, in which its breakdown leads to the formation of specific components. 

Dry Lactose Processing

The quality of the dry lactose (powder form) entirely depends upon the whey. In dry lactose manufacturing units, whey imported from different dairy units and it is tested on daily basis for pH, nitrates, and temperature. Only after detailed analysis in the QA laboratory, the whey enters the processing area. Whey gets stored in large holding tanks with temperatures below 6°C to maintain the functional benefits of the whey and ensure optimal microbiology.

Dry lactose powder 

In processing, whey is subjected to advanced separation and filtration mechanisms to bring out the desired features. By leading the Whey through a network of membranes, we separate the liquid into Retentate for protein ingredients and permeates for lactose ingredients. After separation from Retentate, Permeate is refined and concentrated then the concentrated liquid will be sent for crystallization.  After crystallization, the moist lactose material is led to the advanced bed dryers, here hot air flows through the product until the leftover water is dried out. The finished product is then bagged automatically, with no contact with human hands. 

Lactose Production


        1. Pre- Preparation of Whey

Lactose can be made from whey as well as whey permeate. Before the whey permeate can be used to derive lactose, fine cheese parts and the present amount of fat will be separated as Whey cream. And when the whey permeate will be used, then the proteins of whey will be removed by the process of ultrafiltration.


        1. Evaporation 


Then the whey or whey permeate will be concentrated by means of evaporation at a temperature of almost 60deg.c, until the dry matter content reaches 60-62%. Lactose concentration gets increased after this process. During the evaporation of whey, the temperature would not be raised further just to prevent the proteins from denaturation. If required, the whey permeates will be pre-concentrated.



        1. Crystallizing 

Lactose process-crystallization 

After evaporation, the whey or whey permeate will move further for crystallization. In the crystallization tank, ent-crystals will be added and conditioned cooling will take place in order for the whole to crystallize due to supersaturation. The cooling speed should not be too high, just to ensure the crystals formed should be of minimal size 0-2mm.


        1. Decanting and Washing

Lactose process-decantation (removal of water & impurities)

After crystallization, the formed lactose crystals will be separated using mother liquor by means of two decanters placed in the sequence. In the second decanter, all the impurities will be removed from the lactose crystals using washing water.


        1. Drying 

After the decanter, lactose will move further toward the drying section. To lower the moisture content, the lactose will be dried after the second decanter by using Fluid type bed dryer. Depending upon the application, drying will take place until the moisture content reaches between 0.1 to 0.5%. For producing α-lactose, hot air drying will take place for the duration of 15 to 20 minutes without heating the product over 92°C and prevent the formation of β-lactose.

Dried lactose is then coolest and transported by means of dry air with a temperature of approx. 30°C. Fine matter in the sucked air is separated by means of a bag filter and will be transported back to the drying section.

Fluid-type bed dryer 

        1. Grinding 


After drying, the final product is sent for grinding to the desired size and wrapped in sacks.



There are abundant uses and functionalities of lactose, not just in our daily lives but also in the Industrial world.

  • The preferred type of milk for producing good quality/quantity lactose is Non-fat skimmed milk.
  • Lactose is later fermented and can be used to produce foods like cheese, yogurt, kefir, and acidified (sour) milk. Lactose is also preferred to produce lactic acid, which has a number of uses in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. The process of fermentation involves adding lactic acid bacteria (and less commonly, yeast) to milk or to a milk product.
  • Lactose is commonly used as a Cutting agent, which is prevalent in illegal drug production. And the substances used for this process are typically less expensive than the recreational drugs itself.
  • Lactose intolerant is a term where a human body is unable to break down and digest lactose that’s consumed in milk and other dairy products. The condition usually causes discomfort in the stomach. A body becomes lactose intolerant when it doesn’t produce enough lactase enzymes.
  • The main benefit of lactose-free milk is allowing people with lactose intolerance to enjoy milk and dairy products without triggering uncomfortable symptoms.



Insight into Food Quality Measurement

What is considered food quality?

Food Quality is the quality that the consumer finds acceptable in food service. The food quality parameter includes external elements like aspect (size, shape, brightness, and color), texture, and taste. Other features include internal components and legal quality standards (chemical, physical, microbiological). Many consumers base their decisions on production and processing norms, citing substances with dietary, medicinal, or nutritional requirements (for allergies or diabetes, for example). Food quality is intimately tied to health and hygiene standards and includes traceability and labeling.

Importance of Quality Control

  1. Decrease in production costs

Companies in the food sector can significantly lower their production costs by implementing effective inspection and control in the production processes and operations. Production expenses are further raised by wastage and poor product quality. Quality control monitors the creation of subpar goods and wastes, which significantly lowers the cost of production.

  1. Improved goodwill

Quality control boosts the company’s reputation in the public eye by creating goods of higher quality and meeting client needs. As a result, the brand gains a solid reputation and favorable word-of-mouth marketing on offline and online platforms. A well-known company can readily raise capital from the market. Additionally, a company’s chances of surviving in the fiercely competitive market are better with improved goodwill.

  1. Simplifies pricing

Companies in the food business can ensure that uniform products of the same quality are produced by implementing quality control techniques. This considerably simplifies the issue of food product price fixing. Additionally, this removes the concern over commodities’ prices fluctuating continually.

  1. Improved Sales

Quality control ensures that high-quality items are produced, which draws more customers to the product and boosts sales. It is crucial in sustaining and generating new demand for the company’s products. Additionally, increased social media usage has increased the need for brands to stay alert constantly. Any unfavorable feedback from a customer could harm the brand’s reputation.

  1. Improved Production Methods

Quality control ensures that goods are produced according to the desired standards and at reasonable rates. Quality control ensures better methods and designs of production by providing technical and engineering data for the product and manufacturing processes.

  1. Enhanced employee morale

An efficient quality control system is beneficial in raising staff morale. Employees are more inclined and motivated to work toward the firm’s goals when they believe they are employed by a company that produces sound, high-quality products. Additionally, these workers are more likely to adhere to the organization’s criteria for quality control in their work.

What are Food Quality Testing Parameters?

Any food characteristics used to gauge quality can be called quality parameters. However, the specific features assessed can vary since quality can mean different things to different people along the food supply chain.


The following parameters are commonly used in food quality testing:

These quality parameters are used alone or in various combinations depending on the needs of a stakeholder in the food supply chain.

Broad Categories of Food Quality Measuring Instruments 




A separate industrial sector is expanding with food science research and practice to create and deliver the precise instruments required to measure and monitor numerous quality indicators. One of the most widely used methods is near-infrared spectroscopy, which is suitable for determining the quality and quantity of organic molecules. Together with those made for post-harvest gas analysis, these tools are actively enhancing the production of fresh fruits and vegetables, paving the way for more earnings and more environmentally friendly practices.



FSSC 22000: A brief insight

What is FSSC 22000?

With the industrialization of food, there is an increasing need for affordable, safe, and good-quality food products. FSSC 22000 provides a brand assurance platform to the food industry. Food Safety System Certification 22000 (FSSC 22000) is an internationally accepted certification scheme for certifying and auditing food safety within the food and beverage industry. It is accepted worldwide because it is recognized by Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI).

What is the backbone of FSSC 22000?

FSSC22000 is based on 3 components:

  1. ISO22000- Provides a basic framework across the entire framework.
  2. PRPs- Includes requirements derived from BSI, PAS, and ISO Technical Specification Standards.
  3. FSSC22000 Additional Requirements- Covers those requirements missed in ISO22000 and PRPs.

Aims and Objectives

  1. Create and maintain an accurate and reliable register of certified organizations that have demonstrated that they meet the system’s requirements.
  2. Support the accurate application of food safety and quality management systems.
  3. Promote national and international recognition and acceptance of food safety and quality management systems.
  4. Provide information and campaigns on food safety and quality management systems and support for the certification of food safety management systems in food safety and quality.

Which organizations can get FSSC22000 certification?

FSSC supports the whole food supply chain. It covers:

  • Processing of ambient stable products
  • Production of feed
  • Production of pet food (only for dogs and cats)
  • Production of pet food (for other pets)
  • Catering
  • Retail /Wholesale
  • Provision of transport and storage services for perishable food and feed
  • Provision of transport and storage services for ambient stable food, feed, and packaging materials
  • Production of food packaging and packaging materials
  • Production of Bio-chemicals

Difference between FSSC 22000 and FSSC 22000 QUALITY

Combining FSSC 22000 and ISO 9001 is called FSSC 22000 QUALITY. FSSC 22000 QUALITY is for an organization that wishes to integrate its Food Quality Management System into the scope of certification.

Audit and Certification Process of FSSC 22000

The certification process and audit proceeds according to the steps below:

  1. Initial Certification Audit – The initial certification audit includes: – fixing a mutually convenient date for both the certification body and the applicant, applicant, ensuring that it has all the required documents, staff members, and all the operations and processes ready to be audited on the audit day.
  2. The two Stages for the FSSC 22000 Audit –
    • STAGE 1: Stage 1 verifies that the applicant follows the FSSC 22000 standards, own internal documents, and regulations of the country. The applicant organization must have at least six months of verifiable records for the audit. After review, it will include “areas of concern,” which will be categorized as Major or Minor areas of concern. Finally, the applicant will have up to 6 months to fix the errors. The main objective of this stage is to assess the preparedness for stage 2 of the organization.
    • STAGE 2: In stage 2, activities subjected to the proposed certification shall be assessed and shall take place during the initial six months after stage 1. The site shall be fully operational during the audit. Applicants are issued with either Minor, Major, or Critical findings. In the case of Major and Critical results, the certificate will be issued once these issues are resolved.
  3. Certificate Issue – After all the issues have been resolved to the auditor’s satisfaction, the Certification Body shall issue a certificate which essentially gives assurance that all the standard’s requirements have been met.
  4. Surveillance Audits – After the certification is issued, annual surveillance audits shall be conducted within the three-year, of which at least one must be unannounced.
  5. Recertification Audits – Recertification audits are conducted every three years and usually coincide with a newer version of FSSC 22000. It is a complete audit that encourages the latest compliance and demonstrates the organization’s competence.


Why FSSC 22000?

  • Economical – Organizations can pay all at once or divide the payment over three years. It is economical compared to other schemes, such as British Retail Consortium (BRC), where the organization should pay annually.
  • Valid for three years – Once certified, the organization does not have to worry about certification for three years if they maintain the given standard.
  • Benefit of Surveillance Audit – The auditors will audit each year, which provides room for improvement, if any.


FSSC 22000 is designed to help an organization establish and control and improve its food safety management. The scheme is recognized by GFSI (Global Food Safety Initiative) and is accepted worldwide.

FSSC 22000 integrates quality management with food safety by including all the requirements of ISO9001, making it a one-stop solution for an organization that wishes to incorporate quality into the scope of certification.

It ensures visibility up and down the supply chain. The scheme has both flexibilities with accountability, meeting the needs of individual organizations.



Single Line Diagram (SLD)

1. Introduction

Single-line diagram (SLD) is also known as a one-line diagram. It is a high-level diagram that shows how incoming power is distributed to the equipment. It is the first step in preparing a critical response plan, allowing you to become thoroughly familiar with the electrical transmission system layout and design.

The single-line diagram also becomes your lifeline of information when updating or responding to an emergency. An accurate single-line diagram ensures optimum system performance and coordination for all future testing and can highlight potential risks before a problem occurs.

An effective single-line diagram will clearly show how the main components of the electrical system are connected, including redundant equipment and available spares. It shows a correct power distribution path from the incoming power source to each downstream load – including the ratings and sizes of each piece of electrical equipment, their circuit conductors, and their protective devices.

Whether you have a new or existing facility, the single-line diagram is the vital roadmap for all future testing, service, and maintenance activities. As such, the single-line diagram is like a balance sheet for your facility and provides a snapshot of your facility at a moment in time.

2. Scope of SLD

To give you an accurate picture of your electrical system, the single-line diagram information normally includes:

    1. Incoming lines (voltage and size)
    2. Incoming main fuses, potheads, cutouts, switches, and main/tiebreakers
    3. Power transformers (rating, winding connection, and grounding means)
    4. Feeder breakers and fused switches
    5. Relays (function, use, and type)
    6. Current/potential transformers (size, type, and ratio)
    7. Control transformers
    8. All main cable and wire run with their associated isolating switches and potheads (size and length of run)
    9. All substations, including integral relays and main panels and the exact nature of the load in each feeder and on each substation
    10. Critical equipment voltage and size (UPS, battery, generator, power distribution, transfer switch, computer room air conditioning)

3. Uses & Significance

Single-line diagrams are used by several trades including Electrical, Mechanical, HVAC, and plumbing, but the electrical one-line diagram is the most common. HVAC and plumbing riser diagrams are essentially one-line diagrams, but they go by different names.

An electrical single-line diagram is a representation of a complicated electrical distribution system into a simplified description using a single line, which represents the conductors, to connect the components. Main components such as transformers, switches, and breakers are indicated by their standard graphic symbol. The overall diagram provides information on how the components connect and how the power flows through the system.

4. Flow Diagram of SLD

Few parameters are considered while designing the flow of a single-line diagram to keep it simple & readable:

    1. Remember to use a single line to represent multiple conductors.
    2. Diagrams should start at the top of the page with the incoming source of a system’s power.
    3. Electrical symbols must be used while drawing the single-line diagram to make it simple & concise.
    4. No physical location or size representation is required of the electrical equipment only ratings and breakers sizes with the other equipment to be used should be written.

5. Designing of SLD

To Design a single-line diagrams for your facility Some steps need to be taken:

    1. Create an inventory of all the utilities & equipment used in the building.
    2. Verify its existence and that they are adequately available.
    3. Confirm loads are connected to emergency/standby feeders.
    4. Verify potential single points of failure.
    5. Evaluate design redundancy of critical systems
    6. Make a report that outlines the findings by site along with recommended actions.
    7. Provide a copy of the single-line electrical diagram in AutoCAD format
    8. An up-to-date single-line diagram is vital for a variety of service activities including:
    9. Short circuit calculations, Coordination studies, Load flow studies, Safety evaluation studies, All other engineering Studies, Electrical safety procedures & Efficient maintenance, etc.

6. Calculations Requirements for SLD

6.1.     Identify the appropriate symbols:

To draw and understand a single-line diagram you first need to be familiar with the electrical symbols. This chart shows the most frequently used symbols. For electric power networks, an appropriate selection of graphic symbols is the most important step.

6.2.    Draw the required system:

To draw the electrical single line diagram first we need all the information on electrical equipment and the supply of receiving power. The most important information to include is:

          • Incoming service voltage
          • Equipment rated current
          • Identification of names of equipment
          • Bus voltage, frequency, phases, and short circuit current withstand ratings
          • Cable sizes, runs of cables, and lengths
          • Transformer connection type, kVA, voltages, and impedance
          • Generator voltage and kW
          • Motor HP
          • Current and Voltage ratios of instrument transformers
          • Relay device numbers

6.3.    Related calculations:

To represent the three-phase system in a single line diagram various other cal. are required:

          • Calculation Of generator reactance
          • Calculation Of transformer reactance
          • Calculation Of transmission-line reactance
          • Calculation Of reactance of motors and other equipment etc.

7. Software’s used 

7.1 AutoCAD

AutoCAD Electrical has a schematic library and a single line diagram sub-library. This enables the user to place two different representations down of the same component.

7.2 ETAP

ETAP Single-Line Diagram / View is an intelligent user interface to model, validate, visualize, analyze, monitor, and manage electrical power systems, from high to low voltage AC and DC networks.

7.3 Eco-dial

It is a low voltage electrical installation design software developed by Schneider Electric. it is a user-friendly software that helps you optimize equipment and costs while managing operating specifications, all along with the design of your power distribution projects.

7.4 Microsoft Visio

Visio Professional or Visio Plan 2 are used to create electrical and electronic schematic diagrams.


8. Benefits of SLD:

    • Help identify fault locations which identify when to perform troubleshooting & simplify troubleshooting
    • Identify potential sources of electric energy during the distribution process.
    • Accurate single line diagram will further ensure the safety of personnel work
    • Meets compliance with applicable regulations and standards
    • Ensure safe, reliable operation of the facility

9. Reference:


Probiotic and Prebiotic drinks – An overview

1. An Introduction to Probiotics & Prebiotics

Probiotics are live bacteria, when consumed adequately confer good health benefits to the human body. Nowadays, humans have started to consume junk food that causes an accumulation of harmful bacteria that causes diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, gastric inflammation, and other health issues, so in these cases, probiotics can help us maintain the gut microflora by destroying the harmful bacteria.

The food feeds probiotic bacteria and helps them to grow. Prebiotics can’t be digested by the human body. Prebiotics promotes the growth of the colonizing bacteria in the gut that are beneficial. Prebiotics help in maintaining normal bowel function i.e., Prebiotic fiber cause foods to be digested normally not quickly. Prebiotics help in preventing colon cancer by sweeping away carcinogens and dangerous toxins. Probiotic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium digest inulin in the gut and produce short-chain fatty acids.

2. How do probiotics work in the human gut?

To improve the human gut flora and destroy the bad bacteria the mechanism of probiotics includes:

        • Production of antimicrobials:

Production of antimicrobials such as organic acids (acetic acid and lactic acid are the main antimicrobial compounds responsible for the inhibitory activity of probiotics against pathogens). And the production of antibacterial substances termed bacteriocins.

        • Increased adhesion & inhibition of pathogen adhesion:

The interaction between surface proteins and mucins may inhibit the colonization of pathogenic bacteria and are a result of antagonistic activity by some strains of probiotics against the adhesion of gastrointestinal pathogens.

        • Enhancement of epithelial barrier:

The intestinal barrier is a major defense mechanism used to maintain epithelial integrity and to protect the organism from the environment. Consumption of non-pathogenic bacteria can contribute to intestinal barrier function, and probiotic bacteria have been extensively studied for their involvement in the maintenance of this barrier.

        • Modulation of the immune system:

These immunomodulatory effects are due to the interaction of probiotic bacteria with epithelial cells and Dendritic cells and with monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes.

        • Competitive exclusion of pathogenic bacteria:

When the probiotics are consumed the bacteria will compete with the pathogenic bacteria and destroy them by reducing the Ph and secreting the antimicrobials.

3. How do prebiotics help the probiotics & human body when they are consumed? 

        • Prebiotics help the probiotics to survive, by providing the required nutrition they need. That helps probiotic bacteria to grow and colonize the human intestinal gut.
        • Prebiotics Suppress the putrefactive bacteria because they act on the tissues and prebiotics stimulate the beneficial flora in the human gut creating unfavorable conditions for the pathogenic bacteria.
        • Dietary fibers act as effective prebiotics by stimulating main shifts indirectly affecting the mucosal immune system and gut microbial composition, causing an advancement in intestinal inflammatory disorders and the complete immune response.
        • SCFA are formed when the prebiotics are fermented in the large intestine that acts as carbon and energy sources for the probiotic bacteria.
        • As microbiota have been tangled in the pathogenesis of numerous GI disorders, for this purpose currently the research is focused on the practice of prebiotics. Since many of these polysaccharides can be metabolized by intestinal microflora, producing SCFA (including acetate, butyrate & propionate).

 4. Where do we find the probiotics and the products that are developed by the food industry?

In India, people with different cultures & regions have different cuisines. The best part is that every meal consists of fermented food such as dahi, lassi, tempeh, pickles, etc. These fermented foods have good probiotic bacteria good that help in maintaining good gut health. Some other products that contain probiotic bacteria are yogurt, miso, sauerkraut, kefir, etc. Due to the increase in population and work timings, people have habituated to instant things and food processing industries have developed probiotic products that are healthy & can be consumed instantly. The products that are available in the market are Yakult, epigamia yogurt, good belly, beyond berry, Dan active, etc.

Sources of prebiotics and the products that are available in the market

Sources of prebiotics are Oligosaccharides (garlic asparagus, soybean, wheat bran, etc), Fructans (powder from tubers of artichoke), Human kappa casein, and derived glycomacropeptide (chymotrypsin and pepsin hydrolysate), Stachyose and raffinose (soybean extract), Casein macro peptide (Bovine milk), Lactulose (a synthetic derivative of lactose).

And the products that are available in the market are VSL#3, Kiwi – lens, Prebiotic soups, Prebiotic nana flakes, Oli pop, Wonder drink, kevita prebiotic shots.

  1. What’s the deal with the prebiotic and probiotic drinks?

Probiotic drinks & prebiotic drinks became a trending topic in the market and have huge demand worldwide because of their health benefits. These drinks are available in nearby stores, and the labels of these drinks claim the benefits like “energy-boosting & detoxifying”. “Probiotics are not essential to our daily diet, but they are important in stronger immunity and healthful gut,” says the author Jackie, writer of “The with or without meat cookbook”.

The daily intake of food & beverages that have added nutrients and fortification functional foods including prebiotics is a global consumer trend. prebiotics can’t be digested and can improve the growth of probiotic bacteria. Besides the health benefits prebiotics are also used for enhancing the sensory features, lipid functionalities in low calories beverages & replace sugar.

      • Probiotics and prebiotic drinks do not improve the healthy immune system in minutes, but daily consumption may decrease GI bloat and help prevent constipation.
      • Prebiotics that are been incorporated in beverages mainly dairy industry are galactooligosaccharides, which are mostly used in dairy products & yogurts due to their stability in high water content & low Ph products, and the fructooligosaccharides used for instant beverages and they are more persistent on solid medium, these help in enhancing the products.
      • While these e beverages are beneficial for health, consuming probiotics ad other foods can cause throwing away the balance of the bacteria in the intestine.

6. Understanding the concepts of Symbiotic, Para probiotics & Postbiotics.

The technological advancement changed the thought process of this generation, that have been resulting in the development of new products with more effectiveness in usage & by improving health benefits.

The concept of synbiotics is “a combination of probiotics and prebiotics that have a good influence on the host’s health”. Combining probiotics and prebiotics is thought to be a promising new method, and there is currently a chance to test their efficacy and possible application in IBD in humans.

However, just a few studies supporting the use of synbiotic supplements in IBD have been published. In a study done by Ishikawa H et al., 2011 the combination of Bifidobacterium breve strain Yakult and GOS is tested on 41 patients with active ulcerative colitis, and it resulted in the synbiotic group, there was a significant reduction in clinical and endoscopic UC activity, as well as a decrease in the level of myeloperoxidase in rectal lavages as disease activity increased.

And now there are para probiotics, in these products the inactivated bacterial strains, fragments are used for consumption when consumed adequately they confer good health benefits. The probiotics have live microbes that can be dangerous to people with low immunity, premature babies, and impaired intestinal barriers. Term Para probiotics are introduced by Taverntiti et al. in 2011.

Para probiotics hold the ability to regulate the immune systems, antiproliferative and antioxidant activities. Para probiotics can be administered to weaker immunity people and the elderly. These products are also characterized by greater stability and can be stored without the cold chain, thereby facilitating industrial handling and wide commercialization.

Postbiotics refer to the waste material produced by the probiotics after consuming the prebiotics i.e., As intestinal microbes consume prebiotic fiber, the result of that fermentation or consumption is what is known as postbiotics. Organic acids, short-chain fatty acids, tryptophan, and bacteriocins are the most important postbiotics. Using postbiotics may provide direct or indirect benefits.

The impact of postbiotics on the host cells results in direct advantages. Indirect effects include the support of the proliferation of beneficial microbial strains and the suppression of the formation of harmful strains. Later in the essay, the methods of action are described. Postbiotics have a wide range of effects, just as prebiotics, depending on the type of microorganism, strain, and metabolic product. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant characteristics of postbiotics, particularly SCFA, are the most important benefits.

7. Upshot

From the above information, we have got an overall idea of pro & prebiotic drinks, para probiotics, postbiotics & synbiotics. Every product has its advantages and disadvantages, overdosage of can create unfavorable situations in gut health. there is no instant medicine that can act on the immune system, regular consumption may result in the gradual improvement of health. For example, prebiotic fiber should be 20 grams daily if exceeds causes gastrointestinal problems, etc. And consumption of different foods at a time may change the gut flora and can throw away the required beneficial bacteria.

8. References

Pasta Processing and their types

  1. Introduction

Pasta is a food typically made from an unleavened wheat flour dough mixed with water or eggs and formed into sheets or other shapes. Many different cultures have eaten pasta over a large number of periods. Most Italian-type pasta is made from semolina, a grain product taken from the endosperm of durum wheat during milling.

Many different types of meals can be created with pasta. It tastes good and fills your stomach. Pasta as food represents an inexpensive means of improving diet quality in developed countries and helps to reduce hunger problems in developing countries. The unique combination of properties of cheapness, ease of preparation, versatility, nutritive value, and long shelf life will ensure that pasta will continue to play a role of importance as world demand for cereals increases. 

  1. Processing and extrusion of pasta

Pasta products are manufactured by mixing flour with water and other ingredients into the homogeneous dough and extruding this dough through a variety of dies.

Pasta processing consists of three main unit operations.

  • Hydrating and mixing- kneading of semolina to make the dough (Formation of gluten network)
  • Shaping the dough through extrusion
  • Stabilizing the shaped pasta pieces, usually by using different dye



  1. Equipment used for Pasta Processing

Most pasta is manufactured by continuous, high-capacity extruders, which operate on the auger extrusion principle in which kneading, and extrusion are performed in a single operation.

3.1 Powder Blender

Mixing formula ingredients is often carried out in mixer seems to have better mixing results in commercial noodle production.


The paddle design is generally employed where friable materials are being blended. Horizontal noodle dough mixer consists of several elements: a centrally mounted horizontal shaft that rotates within a cylindrical container, paddles, ploughs mixing elements that are attached to the centrally mounted shaft, special openings at the top for feeding materials, manually tilt able tank operated.

  3.2. Rolling machine

The plate rolling machine is a type of metal forming machine which utilizes work rollers to produce sheet metal round processing and forming. The plate rolling machine is also known by plate bending roller. Rolling machine is used to roll the dough into thin sheets. Rolling machine helps to provide pasta of good texture


3.3 Extrusion machine or slitter machine

Inside the Extruder, the material is compacted, compressed as it moves forward towards the die. This occurs because the material is picked by rotating screw inside a stationery barrel which has grooves on its internal surface.

The grooves enable the sticky, plastic mass to move forward and mix thoroughly under controlled shear and temperature. Teflon dies tend to have too smooth surface and produce slippery pasta with too smooth surface and sauces do not adhere easily to such product.

 3.4   Drying machine

In the Drier Machine, the product is dried under controlled humidity so that drying is neither too slow nor too fast. Too slow drying of product will damage the product as the product is rendered sticky or moldy. Too fast drying will crack the pasta. It might be necessary to ascertain and control different drying times for different product to get optimal results.

A properly extruded and dried pasta product would be firm, but flexible enough to be bent to considerable degree before cracking. In general, product retains about 10% moisture after drying.

3.5   Cooling and Packaging

Before packing, it might be essential to cool the pasta coming out from the main dryer.  After drying pasta is then collected into cooling drum, where the machine adjusted to a programmed temperature. After sealing pasta move into a spiral freezer where they are Individually Quick Frozen at -45 degrees centigrade.

This is generally done by belt conveyors and cooling fans to remove the excess heat before final packing. Ideally, pasta should have no more than 10% moisture before packing to prevent mold growth.

  1. Types of Pasta

Pasta has become one of the most common foods in the Indian kitchens. Pasta is categorized in different types according to their shapes and sizes. There are different types of pasta available in market in which some of them are mentioned below.  Following are some types of pasta available in market.

Pasta is one of the most favorite foods for all age groups. Basic ingredients for the manufacturing of pasta which is typically used are flour, eggs, salts, and water. There are more than 300 types of pasta available in market based on their shapes and sizes, in which penne, spaghetti, farfalle is most commonly used. Pasta can be cooked by adding more and more vegetables in it or it can be consumed with sauces.

  1. Reference