FSSC 22000: A brief insight

What is FSSC 22000?

With the industrialization of food, there is an increasing need for affordable, safe, and good-quality food products. FSSC 22000 provides a brand assurance platform to the food industry. Food Safety System Certification 22000 (FSSC 22000) is an internationally accepted certification scheme for certifying and auditing food safety within the food and beverage industry. It is accepted worldwide because it is recognized by Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI).

What is the backbone of FSSC 22000?

FSSC22000 is based on 3 components:

  1. ISO22000- Provides a basic framework across the entire framework.
  2. PRPs- Includes requirements derived from BSI, PAS, and ISO Technical Specification Standards.
  3. FSSC22000 Additional Requirements- Covers those requirements missed in ISO22000 and PRPs.

Aims and Objectives

  1. Create and maintain an accurate and reliable register of certified organizations that have demonstrated that they meet the system’s requirements.
  2. Support the accurate application of food safety and quality management systems.
  3. Promote national and international recognition and acceptance of food safety and quality management systems.
  4. Provide information and campaigns on food safety and quality management systems and support for the certification of food safety management systems in food safety and quality.

Which organizations can get FSSC22000 certification?

FSSC supports the whole food supply chain. It covers:

  • Processing of ambient stable products
  • Production of feed
  • Production of pet food (only for dogs and cats)
  • Production of pet food (for other pets)
  • Catering
  • Retail /Wholesale
  • Provision of transport and storage services for perishable food and feed
  • Provision of transport and storage services for ambient stable food, feed, and packaging materials
  • Production of food packaging and packaging materials
  • Production of Bio-chemicals

Difference between FSSC 22000 and FSSC 22000 QUALITY

Combining FSSC 22000 and ISO 9001 is called FSSC 22000 QUALITY. FSSC 22000 QUALITY is for an organization that wishes to integrate its Food Quality Management System into the scope of certification.

Audit and Certification Process of FSSC 22000

The certification process and audit proceeds according to the steps below:

  1. Initial Certification Audit – The initial certification audit includes: – fixing a mutually convenient date for both the certification body and the applicant, applicant, ensuring that it has all the required documents, staff members, and all the operations and processes ready to be audited on the audit day.
  2. The two Stages for the FSSC 22000 Audit –
    • STAGE 1: Stage 1 verifies that the applicant follows the FSSC 22000 standards, own internal documents, and regulations of the country. The applicant organization must have at least six months of verifiable records for the audit. After review, it will include “areas of concern,” which will be categorized as Major or Minor areas of concern. Finally, the applicant will have up to 6 months to fix the errors. The main objective of this stage is to assess the preparedness for stage 2 of the organization.
    • STAGE 2: In stage 2, activities subjected to the proposed certification shall be assessed and shall take place during the initial six months after stage 1. The site shall be fully operational during the audit. Applicants are issued with either Minor, Major, or Critical findings. In the case of Major and Critical results, the certificate will be issued once these issues are resolved.
  3. Certificate Issue – After all the issues have been resolved to the auditor’s satisfaction, the Certification Body shall issue a certificate which essentially gives assurance that all the standard’s requirements have been met.
  4. Surveillance Audits – After the certification is issued, annual surveillance audits shall be conducted within the three-year, of which at least one must be unannounced.
  5. Recertification Audits – Recertification audits are conducted every three years and usually coincide with a newer version of FSSC 22000. It is a complete audit that encourages the latest compliance and demonstrates the organization’s competence.


Why FSSC 22000?

  • Economical – Organizations can pay all at once or divide the payment over three years. It is economical compared to other schemes, such as British Retail Consortium (BRC), where the organization should pay annually.
  • Valid for three years – Once certified, the organization does not have to worry about certification for three years if they maintain the given standard.
  • Benefit of Surveillance Audit – The auditors will audit each year, which provides room for improvement, if any.


FSSC 22000 is designed to help an organization establish and control and improve its food safety management. The scheme is recognized by GFSI (Global Food Safety Initiative) and is accepted worldwide.

FSSC 22000 integrates quality management with food safety by including all the requirements of ISO9001, making it a one-stop solution for an organization that wishes to incorporate quality into the scope of certification.

It ensures visibility up and down the supply chain. The scheme has both flexibilities with accountability, meeting the needs of individual organizations.


  1. https://www.fssc.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/FSSC-22000-Scheme-Version-5.1_pdf.pdf
  2. https://ascconsultants.co.za/how-to-get-fssc-22000-certification#Step_12_Understand_the_FSSC_Certification_Audit_Process
  3. https://onecert.com/wordpress_documents/FSSC%2022000%20Guideline.pdf
  4. https://online-training.registrarcorp.com/resources/what-is-fssc-22000/
  5. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DIwUD6fY8h0
  6. https://www.fssc.com/schemes/fssc-22000/scheme-documents-version-5-1/
  7. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_Food_Safety_Initiative#References
  8. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jdA7x1Fgogo

Process Control System in Food Industry

  1. Introduction:

Process control systems (PCS) also known as industrial control systems (ICS) are an integral part of the food & dairy processing industries. It is basically a tool that ensures plant efficiency and reliability. Process control systems function as pieces of equipment along the production line during manufacturing that tests the process in a variety of ways and returns data for monitoring and troubleshooting.

Food and Dairy products have a very vast application which ranges from dairy products to beverages and even bakery items, to fulfill this large demand food processing equipment with a control system is used to execute the various unit operations necessary during a complete production cycle.

  1. Objectives:

The need to install a process control system is to improve the economics of the process by achieving, the following objectives:

    • Reduce variation in the product quality,
    • Achieve more consistent production and maximize yield,
    • Ensure process and product safety,
    • Reduce manpower and enhance operator productivity,
    • Reduce waste and
    • Optimize energy efficiency

Mainly two common classes of control actions are used in industries:

    1. Manual control: In manual control, an operator periodically reads the process parameter. When the value changes from the set value manual process are required to control the operating process.
    2. Automatic control: In automatic control, the process parameter is measured by various sensors & instrumentation which is controlled by using control loops.

All process control configurations whether manual, automatic, or computerized mainly have three essential elements:

    1. A measurement
    2. A control strategy
    3. A feedback element

Regardless of the nature of the product and process. Control in food processing has moved on from just attempting to control single variables, e.g., level, temperature, flow, etc., to systems that ensure smooth plant operation with timely signaling of alarms. Process control systems also work to gather and transmit data obtained during the manufacturing process.

These are:

    1. Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA)
    2. Manufacturing execution systems (MES)
    3. Enterprise resource planning (ERP)

  1. Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition (SCADA):

SCADA is one automation solution that can improve production efficiency and increase profitability. In the food processing industry, SCADA is used to ensure food quality and to achieve production goals. All phases of food preparation are typically monitored and controlled by SCADA. SCADA is also used to control the exact mix of ingredients as well as the time and temperature required to process foods. This prevents foods from being spoiled due to a heating process that was off by a few degrees. SCADA applications are also important in food production to document the fact that the production process meets industry standards and complies with governmental regulations.

Nowadays SCADA systems can do more than simply collect data and operate devices. They use artificial intelligence (AI) to analyze data and make decisions without the help of humans. They can operate in a cloud environment so that SCADA monitoring and control can be accomplished remotely by using tablets and smartphones.

SCADA is used to control and monitor all operational technology (OT) in the plant. And at the same time also sends and receives information from the MES or ERP system For Information that has to do with business planning & scheduling.

SCADA works in the following way:

    • SCADA begins by communicating directly with controllers in the field in real-time, typically through a PLC or RPU.
    • Then the SCADA system gathers all the data obtained from connectors in the field and transfers it to SCADA itself.
    • Later the data is shown graphically to operators that are executing whatever process.

There are many areas in food/dairy industries where SCADA is used to optimize production:

    1. Packaging
    2. Recipe Re-creation
    3. Maintaining Quality standards
    4. Visualization of products
    5. Creation of reports

4. Manufacturing execution systems (MES):

Manufacturing execution systems (MES) are computerized systems used in manufacturing to track and document the transformation of raw materials to finished goods. MES works as a real-time monitoring system to enable the control of multiple elements of the production process (e.g., inputs, personnel, machines, and support services).


MES software can do more for food and beverage manufacturing companies than traditional management. It can:

    • Optimize your shop floor on the go.
    • Identify issues or potential problems before they happen.
    • Integrate easily with existing systems.
    • Empower employees with the data and insights to make manufacturing smarter.
    • Remove non-value-adding actions and anecdotal evidence of losses.
    • Build a reputation of trust and quality with the supplier base using auditable, quality data.

Five things your food industry MES system should have:

    1. User-Friendly Operator Interfaces –The golden rule of developing software for the food processing industry plant floor is that must be easy to use.
    2. Integration to Production Equipment – Food manufacturing production equipment is filled with valuable data and can be used to streamline and optimize manufacturing processes.
    3. Offline Operating Capability- manufacturing processes are network dependent then they will come to a screeching halt if the network fails. MES should have offline operation capability in Your food industry.
    4. Food Industry-Specific Functionality – Modern MES systems and especially one developed specifically for the food manufacturing industry will manage more challenges, making them the ideal solution for your production management and data collection needs.
    5. Food Industry-Specific Modularity –In the same vein, a food industry MES system will likely feature software modules that align well with your production processes.
  1. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP): 

Enterprise Resource Planning refers to a software system which are used for business management. An ERP system enables food companies to manage and optimize their business processes – from purchasing, accounting, finance, human relations, and production to logistics. In short, ERP is the software that keeps your business up and running.

An ERP software for the food industry helps you introduce new products to market faster and cheaper than competitors & also ensures absolute compliance to the food safety regulations.

There are a few must-haves in ERP System:

    1. The ERP software must be able to supply precise cost information for all components, such as finished products, joint products, and byproducts. This is essential for the calculation of material and manufacturing costs as well as for pricing.
    2. Make sure that the system does not have any problems with portraying and optimizing recipes, bills of materials, and product calculations.
    3. Evaluations, gross margins, monitoring of processes and products: only if essential information and key performance indicators can be retrieved from the ERP system at the press of a button will decision-makers be able to get the most out of their business.
    4. The software must allow automated handling of variable weights. Otherwise, you will run into problems in weight price labeling, especially with non-equalized products.
    5. Production planning must take requirements of the fresh goods production into account.

Advantages of ERP:

    • Cost reduction: Save the investments in your own server, other expensive hardware, and skilled staff (which are quite hard to find these days)
    • Savings in time: No need to worry about keeping your ERP system and the hardware up to date. This will save you precious time.
    • Scalability: Add or remove IT resources cost-efficiently and in a very short time.

Benefits of Process Control System: 

    • Reduces wastage of expensive compounds
    • Provides improved production reliability
    • Increases productivity & quality
    • Improve the consistency of the product
    • Minimize the influence of external disturbance
    • delivers the continuous data required to meet regulatory standards
    • Standardized business processes

7. Reference:

    • Process Control in Food Processing Article Written by Keshavan Niranjan, Araya Ahromrit and Ahok S. Khare
    • https://www.thomasnet.com/articles/machinery-tools-supplies/overview-of-food-processing-equipment
    • https://www.energyventures.in/supervisory-control-systems.php
    • https://www.automationit.com/blog/73-5-ways-scada-can-improve-food-and-beverage-manufacturing
    • https://www.thermopedia.com
    • https://www.hitachi-hightech.com
    • https://www.google.com/www.sciencedirect.com
    • https://www.thebalancesmb.com/
    • https://www.plcacademy.com/scada-system/
    • https://slcontrols.com/solutions/manufacturing-execution-systems/
    • https://www.cioinsight.com/enterprise-apps/erp-software/
    • https://www.cic.es/en/scada-system-and-industry-4-0
    • https://www.matrixcontrols.com/food-industry-mes-system/
    • https://www.hitachi-hightech.com/global/product_detail/?pn=hsl_ins_mes_cyb_005
    • https://food-blog.csb.com/us-en/the-erp-system-what-food-companies-need-to-know-to-know


Process Control Equipment in Food Industry

  1. Introduction:

Process control equipment in the food industry are the types of equipment that measure the variables of a technical process, direct the process according to control signals from the process computer system, and provides appropriate signal transformation. Examples of process control equipment include actuators, sensors, transducers, etc.

These are the equipment used to ensure that food processing equipment operates correctly and the processing stages are continued as specified SOP.

These are equipment, that can be used

    • to analyze ingredients and machines,
    • allowing manufacturers to perform and duplicate processing procedures.
    • monitor existing systems and machinery, such as logging data during product testing or quantifying typical performance statistics.

Control equipment’s are particularly crucial during food production, as minor changes in cooking temperature, ingredient ratios, and operation times can lead to drastic changes in the finished product. 

  1. Objective:

The main objective to implement control equipment’s in the food industry is to improve the economics of the process by achieving the following objectives: 

    • Reduce energy consumption and increase versatility
    • Enable cost-effective operation of the manufacturing process
    • Reduce the air consumption of pneumatically operated valves
  1. Sensors:

In the food industry sensors are designed with process connections for clamping directly onto the process. They have a high mechanical strength to withstand the temperature and pressure associated with food production. The use of sensors to monitor temperature throughout the production process helps to ensure an optimum final product and assures food safety.

3.1 Sanitary Sensor:

Hygienic Pressure Transmitters are used in food & dairy application mainly with strong features like high-performance, long-term stability, high performance of temperature characteristics, etc. To accomplish these objectives many types of sanitary sensors are used in the food industry. Few are listed below:

        • Hygienic Adapter System (Fluid less Type): This system composes of replaceable adapters (16 adapters in total) with the hygienic function of pressure detection. fluid less type’s pressure sensor doesn’t need liquid such as silicon oil. It adapts duplex stainless steel as a sensor material. This duplex stainless-steel material has both high corrosion resistance and high tension.

        • Digital Remote Sensor (DRS): Transmitter connects two pressure sensors, master (high-pressure side) and slave (a low-pressure side) in a remote location, with DRS dedicated communication cable to measure differential pressure. These are suitable for various kinds of pressure measurement.

        • Differential/gauge pressure diaphragm seal: Diaphragm Seal System consists of differential pressure or gauge pressure transmitter with one or two diaphragm seals.  Suitable for various kinds of pressure measurement.

        • Distributed Temperature Sensor: These sensor is capable of intelligently monitoring temperature distribution up to 50 km in the lengthways direction in real-time with the help of a fiber optic sensor cable. This helps achieve fire detection, fire prevention, and preventive maintenance of equipment over a wide area which has up till now been difficult with thermocouples, resistance temperature detectors, or radiation thermometers. DTSX supports the HSE (Health, Safety, and Environment) plus the maintenance of plants and the social infrastructure, and aids safe operation.

When a large-scale fire or equipment failure causes the production line to stop, the damage is not limited to just customers’ assets or loss of revenue opportunity, but the supply chain is also affected. The economic and social loss is immeasurable. DTSX can precisely identify abnormally hot locations as a fiber optic sensor cable is installed along the length of the measurement target. This enables a quick initial response for safety, which ensures that the operation of the plant and social infrastructure is maintained, and the customers’ assets and social credibility are protected.

        • Tunable Diode Laser Spectrometers (TDLS):

It allows real-time gas analysis to increase efficiency, safety, quality, and environmental compliance. The non-contacting sensor allows measurement under severe conditions, such as high temperature, high pressure, corrosive/abrasive conditions, high dust concentration, etc. Maintenance can also be performed without taking the process offline because the TDLS is isolated from the process. The TDLS is a robust process analyzer that contributes to stable and efficient operation.

        • Sushi Sensor:

To improve the availability ratio and profitability of plants, timely identification of health conditions and efficient maintenance of aged equipment are required. Various sensing technologies are needed to monitor conditions and maintain diverse equipment. To maintain equipment distributed across a plant efficiently with limited man-hours, quantification of measurement data and automated data acquisition and storage systems are required Sushi Sensor measures vibration, temperature, and pressure as data for maintaining equipment.

        • Level sensor:

level sensors are used for in-line measurement and control of the food processing operation. Typically, they may be used to monitor temperature and liquid levels rates, acid/alkali inputs, and gas flow. For example, a level sensor is used to determine specific volumes of liquid dispensed during the cooking phase, too much or too little may mean the product is spoiled. So, to take care of this level sensors are used in the food industry.


        • Coriolis Mass Flowmeters: 

Coriolis mass flow meter, which is widely considered the most accurate type of mass flow meter and is widely used in industrial applications for accurate measurement. Coriolis flowmeters feature instrumentation that function on the principles of the Coriolis effect – a notable (and strange) phenomenon whereby a mass moving in a rotating system experiences a force acting perpendicular to the direction of motion and the axis of rotation.

Application of this includes Batching, Dosing, Blending, Chemical injection, High-pressure gases, Liquid and gas low flow measurement, Precision coatings, R&D laboratory, Vacuum thin film coating, etc.

Typical Food Sensor Applications: 

      • Storage vessels – pumps and valves
      • Food processing monitoring systems, alarms, and alerts
      • Water purification
      • Liquid level sensing for industrial food processing operations
      • Cryogenic fast freeze technologies
      • Food test laboratories
      • Liquid gas storage
      • Transport
      • Liquid dispensing
      • Solvent and chemical control 


  1. Actuators:

Efficient food processing and packaging operations call for high-level robust technologies that are durable, precise, and safe for food. Various food industry procedures including cutting and slicing of raw materials and filling beverages, which need to be done systematically, without any contamination. To fulfill these demands, actuators are used at a high speed and with maximum efficiency.

An actuator is a device that produces a motion by converting energy and signals going into the system. The motion it produces can be either rotary or linear. Linear actuators, as the name implies, produce linear motion. This means that linear actuators can move forward or backward on a set linear plane – a set distance they can travel in either direction before they must stop. Rotary actuators on the other hand produce rotary motion, meaning that the actuator revolves on a circular plane.

Linear or rotary actuators are available in various forms depending on the power-supply source.  The actuator could be electrical, pneumatic, or hydraulic. The choice of actuator type used will most likely depend on the application and industry-specific requirements. For example, the natural choice for the food industry would be electrical actuators.

4.1 Electrical Actuators:

Electric Linear Actuators are a crucial part of food processing and packaging systems. They allow you to control your production more efficiently by providing motion to the machines at required speeds. In addition to this, they help in eliminating potentially harmful fluid-powered systems from the food production environment. Vowing their uses, electric actuators are widely used in the following areas: 

          • Conveyor Process
          • Bread Robots
          • Packaging Robotics
          • Ergonomic Stations

4.1.1: Benefits of Electric Actuators in the Food Industry:

Electric actuators offer various advantages for many industries, and the food industry is one of those. They are designed to perform in a rough and challenging environment. Here are a few benefits:

          • Speed up Operations
          • No Fluid Leakage
          • Hygienic Design
          • Corrosion resistance
          • Clean and Robust Actuator Technology


4.1.2: Disadvantage of Electric Actuators in the Food Industry:

Apart from various advantages, Electric actuators have a few disadvantages too:

          • lower speed than pneumatic and hydraulic actuators
          • less suitable for very heavy loads

      • Pneumatic Actuators: 

Pneumatic actuators are found in automated systems and machinery in every industry and come in a wide range of sizes, styles, and designs. Easy to maintain, they can operate at high speeds, offering tremendous flexibility and value for a seemingly endless number of applications. In addition to being fast, economical, and reliable, pneumatic actuators are also cleaner and safer than other solutions, which make them ideal for manufacturing, packaging, palletizing, material handling, food, and beverage, and many more applications.

Pneumatic actuators are devices that use compressed air to power motion. That motion can be along a rotational or linear path, ultimately assisting or performing a task such as pushing, pulling, gripping, turning, feeding, ejecting, opening, closing, holding, stopping, clamping, stamping, and, as you can guess, the list goes on. The forces that these actuators can produce depend primarily on the cylinder bore size (piston diameter) and the operating pressure, but rod size is also a very important consideration on the rod-style cylinder. 

  1. Transducers: 

A transducer can be anything that converts one form of energy to another. transducers that are used in food industries are piezoelectric, but some are magnetostrictive also. Piezoelectric transducers convert cyclic electrical current into physical vibrations, and magnetostrictive devices convert varying magnetic fields into physical vibrations.

5.1 Piezoelectric Transducer: 

A piezoelectric transducer (also known as a piezoelectric sensor) is a device that uses the piezoelectric effect to measure changes in acceleration, pressure, strain, temperature, or force by converting this energy into an electrical charge. The word piezoelectric is derived from the Greek word piezen, which means to squeeze or press. The piezoelectric effect states that when mechanical stress or forces are applied to a quartz crystal, produces electrical charges on the quartz crystal surface. The rate of charge produced will be proportional to the rate of change of mechanical stress applied to it. Higher will be stress, higher will be voltage.     

5.2 Magneto-strictive Transducer: 

A magnetostrictive transducer makes use of a type of magnetic material in which an applied oscillating magnetic field squeezes the atoms of the material together, creating a periodic change in the length of the material and thus producing a high-frequency mechanical vibration. Magnetostrictive transducers are used primarily in the lower frequency ranges and are common in ultrasonic cleaners and ultrasonic machining application 

  1. Reference: 

Shelf life study of spices 

1. Introduction

Spices are seed, fruit ,bark or leaves that are used for colouring and for flavouring purposes. Spices are available in the form of Raw, whole & pre-ground forms. Spices are used according to convenience purpose. Some spices are used for rituals & medicinal purpose .From the olden times people have been noticed to that spices help to boost immunity . And they  have health benefits In reducing  such as inflammatory, cancer and cardio vascular diseases etc. Due to good health benefits the spices are sold expensive. The population has increased drastically and of course it resulted in  increasing consumption , production & storage of spices.

Shelf life can be defined as the period of time where the product is safe and good for consumption  after the packaging  .The shelf life depends on the type of the product for example some products can be expired within a week and some may stay upto 2 -3 years.

2.Why shelf-life is importance?

Shelf life study of products varies on the type of the food product .During the shelf  life span, the food product  should remain safe .The manufacturing date and expiry date is mentioned on every packaged product .

Based on that the consumer will decide .If the food is spoiled before the expiry date ,it indicates that there is contaminated during processing such kind of products are been recalled by company. Based on the shelf life of product the consumers use food product .Shelf life is important factor because it indicate safe consumption of the food product. Its not that after the expiry date the product is totally spoiled or make you sick ,the quality, the flavour and texture of the product starts deteriorating .These does not give the required mouthfeel that we expect.

 3 . How to know spices went bad?

On traditional sense ,spices doesn’t expire when stored properly but the flavour and aroma are decreased . To know the whole spices are good we can sense it by smelling or crushing the spices . If the flavour does not give the proper aromatic feel then it is time to replace the spices with fresh ones .And if the spices are kept in humid area there may be chances of early spoilage because due to moisture there will be mould growth that causes odd flavours. When spices are not kept properly they are attacked by insects and other organisms that causes decrease in shelf life and by making them unfit for consumption.

4. Factors influencing shelf life of the spices.

There are  two factors that influence shelf life of spices during storage period. They are Intrinsic and Extrinsic factors-

      • Intrinsic factors : Factors that are inborn within the food and can not be controlled. The intrinsic factors are moisture content, water activity, sugar content, pH, salt content, nutrient content, and oxidation potential.
      • Extrinsic factors are the factors that can be controlled or changed .The extrinsic factors are Modified Atmospheric Packaging (MAP) and packaging materials, temperature, time, chemical preservatives, processing methods.

5.  Major issues/Defects in spices:

The defects in spices are Defects in these products may be grouped as :

      • Damaged due to insect infestation- The spices are contaminated by insects in the farm, while harvesting and during storage. The insect pests include, coleoptera, lepidopetra, hemipetra  The examples of insect infestation ranges from excreta, frass, evidence  of surface feeding and webbing.
      • contamination by animals-Bird droppings and other animals feces are found.
      • Mould development-The spices are attacked in the farm or while storage .Fungi easily attack the spices in linited moisture conditions.
      • Contamination by extraneous material- Contamination by stones, cigarette butts ,stones during processing  and storage conditions.

6. How to store spices for maximum shelf-life?

The shelf life of the spices depend on the form of the product .For example the powdered or ground spices can be stored upto 1 year ,whereas the whole spices can be stored up to 3years.

      • Basic way to increase the shelf life of spices by minimizing the contact or exposure to sunlight, heat, moisture, air. These can minimize the spoilage.
      • Spices should be packed in tightly sealed containers & non porous containers .The best option to store in ceramic& glass containers because they prevent air & moisture that will increase shelf life of spices.
      • Although the popular used item is plastic container ,but they are not perfectly air tight ,and plastic containers are difficult to clean because they absorb colors  & odor.
      • Other viable options are tin and stainless steel . It is important that these containers are to be stored away from heat because they are heat conductive .
      • Spices like chilli and pepper retain colour if longer kept under refrigerated conditions.

      • If there is any spice that is damaged should be removed quickly in order to prevent the spoilage of other spices.
      • While removing the spices from containers they should be removed with any dry utensils in order to prevent moisture that cause mould growth.
      • For traditional packaging of spices, jute bags are used or depending on the value of the spices, A twill, DW and B twill gunny bags are used .And for better protection of the product double jute bags ,multiwall paper sacks ,or paper bags are used , but these can absorb moisture from the environment .So in such situation, HDPE,PP Woven sacks or polyethylene lined jute bags are advised for use.
      • For ground spices the packaging materials used are PP woven, HDPE ,multiwall paper bags, lined textile sacks  ,glass or metal containers .

7. Legal requirements :

The major clause, in accordance with the new guidelines, states that no food item will be permitted unless it has a 60 percent shelf life remaining after customs clearance. The Food Safety and Standards (Import) Regulations, 2016, will take effect once they are published in the Official Gazette, according to the FSSAI.

Food items with less than 60 percent of their shelf life left at the time of clearing will not be cleared from the customs area

8. References :

Product Hold and Release Program

Hold and release is a process used to prevent products and materials that may not meet specifications from being used until investigations are completed.

In this video lecture, Shimmi Sebastian (Process Engineer) at PMG Engineering introduces the Hold and Release Program along with its importance in industry, its application, categories and many more components.

Factors affecting shelf life of Food Product

After manufacturing of any food products, it retain its desired sensory, chemical, physical, functional or microbiological characteristics. The timeframe till a product can hold these characteristics defines the shelf life of the product.

In this video lecture, Veena Mishra (Process Engineer) at PMG Engineering introduces us to the topic Shelf Life and outlines the various factors influencing the product shelf life.

Corrective Action Preventive Action (CAPA)

CCAPA is a process which investigates and solves problems, identifies causes, takes corrective action and prevents recurrence of the root causes. The ultimate purpose of practicing CAPA is to assure no problem or issues to occur again in any facility.

In this video lecture, Veena Mishra (Process Engineer) at PMG Engineering discuss about the requirements, importance and implementation of CAPA in food Industry.

Programmable Logic Controller

PLC is an industrial grade computer used in automation industry to make system reliable through logic. It was invented by General motor, in America and Dick Morley was considered father of PLC. Dick Morley has identified the problem in industry that before PLC there is hardware wiring and this hardware nature made it difficult for design engineer to find troubleshooting and system is also not reliable. Now a days PLC is used in every automation industry and there are so many Industry providing automation digital solution like Schneider electric, Allen Bradley, Siemens industries and so on.

Working of PLC

PLC works in program of scan cycle where it read executes it program repeatedly and there is ladder logic and scan cycle consist of 3 steps.

  1. Read input
  2. Execute the program
  3. Write output

It follows the sequence of instruction and works in real time that is millisecond and in milliseconds for the processor to evaluate all the instruction and update all the output according to instruction.

Component of PLC

 They have three components, and these are: processor, power supply input/output section                               

  • Processor

It is brain of system of plc system, is a solid state device designed to perform a wide variety of production, machine tool and processor control function. Conventionally electromechanical device, relays and their associated wiring formerly performed these function. It operates in 5volt supply and supplied by power supply. Once the ladder diagram program is entered into processor, it remains until changed by the user with one of programming devices and program unaltered through power failure.

  • Power supply

It work is to convert line voltage into 24 dc voltage to provide internal circuitry. Basically, it is combination of transformer, rectifier and capacitor. In some cases, it also provides an isolated VDC supply to power dc input circuits, switches and indicators. There are so type power supply found in PLC like DC/DC converter power supply, Frequency converter plc power supply, Linear plc power supply and Switching plc power supply.

  • PLC Input/Output

Electrical noise like spike in power lines or load kick back would have series impact on PLC internal circuits this is where input/output portion play a very important role. The I/O both protect CPU from electrical noise. The I/O section is where status signal is filtered to remove noise level and CPU decision are made and put into operation. The PLC inputs provide their status to a storage area within the CPU AND outputs are driven from similar stored status in the CPU. Real world devices like push buttons, limit switches and sensor are connected through input modules in the PLC. These modules detect a change in state of input signal and provide a stored image to input element in ladder logic. The input element simulates action of relay contact within PLC. In turn, output element are energized which produces desired output signal to drive load such as motor controller, contactors, via output modules in the I/O.

  • PLC Programming

PLC are simply to program. They use a relay ladder language that is similar to magnetic relay circuitry. Engineers, and electrician can learn to program the PLC without extensive training or experience. There are numerous advantages in using PLC versus a relay or solid electronics. In a PLC, changes can be accomplished quickly and inmost cases, without hardware modification to the controller.


The advantages one gets with PLC are-

  1. Less wiring.
  2. Easier and make faster response in real time.
  3. It make trouble shooting easier and reducing downtime.
  4. High reliable and flexible.
  5. Low power consumption.
  6. Capable of handling complex logic.


PLC applications are typically customized system. It is low compared to cost specific custom- built control design. It requires less maintenance due to absence of moving parts, thus making things they work better. Overall, PLC appear to be an excellent solution for many different problems.


  1. https://www.unitronicsplc.com/what-is-plc-programmable-logic-controller/?__cf_chl_managed_tk__=pmd_fcc46ff256a5f8fc95b6a9ac40d67fed824816f5-1626427881-0-gqNtZGzNAuKjcnBszQgO
  2. https://www.galco.com/comp/prod/plc.htm#:~:text=Programmable%20Logic%20Controllers%20have%20three,(I%2FO)%20section.&text=The%20processor%2C%20or%20the%20brain,%2C%20and%20process%2Dcontrol%20functions.



It is static device used to step up and step down of voltage level without change in frequency and power. Transformer works on the mutual induction principle. This principle states that when electric current flows in primary winding supply then due to alternating nature of supply voltage, it develops varying nature of flux and whenever varying mutual flux linked to a secondary winding through core then according to faraday law, whenever either conductor cuts a magnetic flux or magnetic flux cuts a conductor, EMF produced in conductor, hence in this way, EMF developed on secondary winding.

The basic phenomenon behind working of transformer is mutual induction between two winding linked by a common magnetic flux. Transformer consist of two inductive coils, LV and HV winding. These windings are electrically separated but magnetically linked to each other. When LV or HV winding are supplied of ac supply then alternating magnetic flux developed in the winding and it get linked to load side by a common path that phenomenon is called mutual induction. Due to this, alternating EMF is produced in load side whenever circuit will be closed the current flows in load side.

  1. Types of Transformer

According to change in level of voltage, there are two type of transformer –

1.1.  Step up transformer

1.2.  Step down transformer

  • Step up transformer

 It is used to step up the level of voltage. This transformer increases voltage from primary to secondary winding. In this transformer, secondary turns are more than primary turns. This transformer has made long distance transmission power practical because it steps up the voltage and corresponding it decrease current at same ratio hence, due to decreases the current level there is much less power losses in line. This is used generally for long distribution.

  • Step down transformer

This transformer decreases level of voltage from primary to secondary. In this transformer, secondary turns are less than primary turns. It is used mainly in distribution and load side. This transformer has a wide variety of application like distribution side and electronic devices etc. When it comes to operating voltage, the step up transformer application can be roughly divided into two groups: LV (voltages up to 1kv) and HV (voltages above 1kv). 

  1. Construction of transformer

The construction of transformer is of iron core laminated with steel bands core lamination are constructed from insulated metal thin metal strips. These laminations are separated and wound around the limp using a sheet of coat. The laminations are separated and wound around the limb using a sheet of coat or parchment. The winding consists of two types, main and secondary winding. These winding are isolated from each other and are made by electrical coil.

  • Core

The core of transformer is typically built with high permeability materials, such as silicon steel laminations. Based upon configuration of main and secondary windings, a transformer core may be formed in two ways.

  • Core type construction

In core type construction, as shown in fig, the coils are wound around two limb of rectangular magnetic core. Each limb carries one half of primary winding and one half of secondary winding so as to reduce leakage reactance to minimum possible. The LV is wound on inside nearer to core while the HV winding wound on inside nearer to core while HV winding is wound over LV winding away from the core in order to reduce amount of insulation material required. 

  • Shell type construction

In shell type construction, the coils are wound on central limb of a three limb core. The entire flux passes through central limb and divides in two parts going to side limbs shown in fig. Sandwich type winding is used in such a construction. This type of construction is popular in low voltage application like transformer used in electronic devices, power electronics converters.                                     



                                                      Fig: Shell and core type construction

  • Conservator

A cylindrical tank plays a key role in transformer. It is arranged over the main tank roof so that sufficient space can be provided to expand to transformer oil. Once the temperature increases, then oil volume can also be increases, then oil volume can also be increased. Then oil goes to conservator tank after cooling down it returns to main tank. The shape of conservator tank in transformer is cylindrical where both ends of oil container are closed. One side of the container is provided for cleaning purpose.



                                                    Fig: Conservator tank

  • Breather

 As a temperature of transformer increases, the insulating oil in transformer heats up.   When oil heats up and spreads, the transformer breathes air in and oil is cooled down and oil level is consumed. The oil level in chamber rises and reduces as breather brings the air in and out to cool the air. The air carries moisture, which contaminates oil and thus deteriorates the consistency of oil. The breather is packed with silica gel to remove moisture content. The key feature of silica gel is to isolate moisture from oil while preserving the consistency of insulating oil. The color of silica gel becomes pink as it absorbs moisture from oil

                                                                 Fig: Breather


  • Radiator

The basic function of radiator is to cool down the transformer oil. Oil immersed power transformer is generally provided with detachable pressed sheet radiator with isolating valves. But in case of small size distributing transformer, the radiators are generally integrated parts of transformer body and projected from main tank. The working principle of radiator is very simple. It just increases the surface area for dissipating heat of oil. Under loaded condition, warm oil increases in volume and enter into upper portion of main tank. Then oil enters in radiator through top valve and cools down by dissipating heat through thin radiator wall. This cold oil comes back to main tank through bottom radiator valve.

  • Bushings

Bushings are the insulation system in construction of transformer that enables an electrical conductor to safely transfer electrical energy through it. When a significant volume of electrical energy travel through it, it provides electrical field power to withstand insulation of conductor. In small transformer, solid porcelain type bushing   is used, and in large transformer, oil filled condense type bushing is used.

                                                                 Fig: Bushing


  • Buchholz relay

In order to protect of transformer from internal short circuit due to oil, buchholz relay is used for oil immersed transformer, buchholz relay is an oil and gas actuated relay which sense the fault occurring in the part immersed in transformer. Whenever short circuit occurs in transformer then oil generates enough heat and become decompose itself into hydrogen and monoxide gases and these gases travel through pipe and relay is also mounted on pipe between main tank and conservator tank and these relay sense the gas and activate the tripping circuit.

                                                            Fig: Buchholz                                                              

  1. Distribution voltages classes and standard ratings of transformer

Transformer are used wide variety of purposes, with complete range of voltage and power ratings as well as many special features for particular applications.

The following cover main types:

  • Small transformer

They are used for stationary, portable or hand held power supply units. They may be used to supply three phase power up to 40kva at frequencies up to 1mhz. 

  • Distribution Transformer

 They are used to distribute power to domestic premises. They may be single phase or three phase. They have rating ranging from16kva up to 2500kva and this type of transformer like 11, 6.6, 3.3, 440 sand 230V. 

  •  Supply Transformer 

They are used to supply larger industrial premises or distribution substations. Ratings ranging from 4mva to 30mva, with primary winding rated up to 66kv and secondary up to 36kv. The primary winding has a highest voltage ranging from 3.6kv to 36kv, the secondary winding voltage does not exceed 1.1kv. 

  • Transmission transformer

          They are among largest and highest voltage transformer in use. They are used to transmit power between high voltage networks and Rating ranging from 60mva to 1000mva and winding are rated at 33, 66,132, 275 and 400kv.       

  •  Power or step up transformer 

Power is usually generated in large power station at typically 11kv-20kv, and this transformer are used to step up voltage. These transformers are usually rated at 400, 500, 630,800 or 1000mva and transmit power at 66, 110,132,220, 400 and 765kv. 

  1. References 

  1. https://www.electricaleasy.com/2014/03/electrical-transformer-basic.html

Lightning Protection Unit

Lightning is an atmospheric discharge of electricity from thunder, occurs during thunderstorms. The atmospheric discharge lightning can travel at speed of light and its temperature can reach up to 30,000 degree Celsius. The effect of lightning strike may cause thousands of death every year. It is a natural phenomenon occurring at any day and this discharge produce a wide range of electromagnetic radiation.

Lightning protection unit are designed to protect the building structures, industrial appliances, commercial building, HT substation, electrical equipments, communication transmission lines  etc. from damage effect of lightning strike. It play a very important role in safety from lightning storms. A lightning strike could bring thousands of mega ampere current within milliseconds. As a result, failure of home and industrial appliances, fire in building structures, home etc. and may cause death also.

                                       Fig: Effect of lightning strike on building

                                         Fig: Building with lightning protection unit


As we can relate with both of the figure above , effect of lightning on building without and with light protection unit.

  1. Components of lightning protection devices

    • Air terminal

Air terminal is used to intercept lightning strike. It provide a low resistance path to lightning strike and it is connected to down conductor and down conductor is connected with earthing electrode which is directly kept into soil mud. Whenever lightning strike hits, the whole current is discharged through air terminal- which is  connected to ground electrode instead of building structure.      

  • Down conductor

Down conductor provide a low resistive path to lightning current from air terminal to ground electrode. It should be installed vertically and straight to avoid the bending of down conductor. This shall ensure minimum inductance because of resistance in the path of discharging current and surges.

  •     Grounding

 It play a very important role in discharging lightning current. It dissipates all the lightning current into a big mass of soil. The soil resistivity should be less than 10 ohm for comfortable discharge of current, according to electrical standard. A typically earth electrode of copper alloy is deep driven vertically into the soil. Soil have finit conductivity so that current discharges easily. The mixing of charcoal and salt is done in soil pit to decrease the resistivity of soil.

  1. Lightning Arrestor

These devices are designed to protect the transmission line, insulations, switchgears, transformers communication line by the effect of lightning strike. They directly installed to power substation , distribution system or telecommunication line. It has ground termininal and high voltage terminal and whenever lightning travel along the power line to arrestor then current through surges diverted by arrestor to earth. In telegraphy and telecommunication, it is placed where wires enter a structure so that preventing damage to electronic instrument and ensuring safety near to them. Their purpose is basically to limit the rise in voltage when power lines are struck by lightning.


                                                  Fig: Lightning arrestors

Small version of light arrestor is called surge arrestor. That are generally used for protection from surges produced in transient condition and they are not used directly to protect from lightning. The most common surge arrestor is non linear metal oxide resistor type in porcelain or silicon rubber housing that are fitted parallel to circuit and connected to earth griding.

 Types of Lightening Arrestors 

  • Station class

Typically used in power stations or substations  and other high voltages structure and areas. It is designed to protect equipment above 20MVA range. 

  • Intermediate class

Designed to used in medium voltage equuipment areas, electrical substaions, transformer or other substation equipment and it is designed in range of 1 to 20 MVA.

  • Distribution class

Most commonly found on transformers and are commonly used in equipments rated at 1000kva or less.

  • Secondary class

Found in homes and commercial buildings and provide  least amount of protection to electrical system.

  1. Conclusion

All electrical equipment in an electrical system needs to be protected from voltage surges. The rating of arrestor, the class of arrestor and location of arrestor all play a important role in the surge protection. In protection of substation, we use different class of lightning arrestors to protect the electrical equipment and In ships, water is used to discharge voltage.

  1. References

  1. https://www.electricaltechnology.org/2020/03/surge-arrester-suppressor-lightning-arrester-rod.html