Introduction to Air Quality standards for the classification of Compressed air quality

  1. Introduction

ISO (International Standards Organisation) is the world’s largest developer and publisher of international standards. An intermediary between the public and private sectors, ISO is a non-governmental organization. It has developed international standards to test the quality of compressed air. There are now three standards in use that are specifically related that directly relate to compressed air quality (purity) and testing:

  1. ISO8573 Series
  2. ISO12500 Series
  3. ISO7183

The most used standard is the ISO8573 Series and in particular ISO8573-1:2010. The ISO air quality standard measures three types of contaminants present in compressed air: water, oil content, and solid particles. It does not consider microorganisms and gases.

2.     What is compressed air quality & why it is needed?

When air is gathered to be compressed, more particles are also gathered, resulting in contaminated air. When air is compressed, the number of impurities present exponentially rises. Additionally, when compressing air, other pollutants could be included. To clean up the compressed air system’s pollutants, air treatment is required. The types of contaminants found in a compressed air system include:

  1. Solid particles / Dust
  2. Water (in liquid or vapor form)
  3. Oil content (in vapor or aerosol form)

Schematic presentation of contaminants present in compressed air

When air is adequately treated, it is considered clean and safe. However, the quality of compressed air is determined not just by how clean it is, but also by how dry it is. The number of particles of a specified size present in one cubic meter of air, the dew point, and the number of oil aerosols and vapor must all be counted to assess how clean and dry the compressed air is.

Compressed air is utilized in a variety of industries, including mining, manufacturing, textile manufacturing, and food processing. The air quality utilized in industrial applications has a direct impact on the work process, installed machines, and product quality. As a result, it is critical that the compressed air be clean and devoid of pollutants.

The smaller the chance of contamination, breakdowns, and product rejection, the cleaner the air. This is especially important in businesses like food and beverage and pharmaceuticals. There is a possibility that the air will come into direct touch with the product or will come into indirect contact with the packaging.

  1. Classification of Compressed air quality

Compressed air is the only utility created by the end user of all the key utilities used in the food manufacturing setting. This means that the end-user has a direct impact on the quality of this energy source.

High-quality compressed air is essential for producing food that is not only cost-effective to process but also safe to consume. Therefore, choosing the appropriate compressed air equipment for food processors is in the best interests of everyone. The basis for choosing air treatment products is made much easier by the ISO 8573 air quality standards and ISO 12500 compressed air filter standards.


      Standards used for air quality measurement

  1. What is ISO 8573 & how it defines different air purity classes?

ISO 8573 is the compressed air quality standard. ISO8573 is a series of international standards that address compressed air quality (or purity). Part 1 of the standard describes the compressed air quality requirements, and parts 2 through 9 detail the testing techniques for various pollutants.

  • ISO 8573-1: Contaminants & purity classes
  • ISO 8573-2: Oil aerosol test methods
  • ISO 8573-3: Humidity test methods
  • ISO 8573-4: Solid particle test methods
  • ISO 8573-5: Oil vapor test methods
  • ISO 8573-6: Gas test methods
  • ISO 8573-7: Viable microbiological content tests
  • ISO 8573-8: Solid particle test methods by mass concentration
  • ISO 8573-9 Liquid water test method


       Various air quality classes


This above standard also determines air quality, which is designated by the following nomenclature: Compressed Air Purity Classes A, B, C:
A= Solid particle class designation
B= Humidity and liquid water class designation
C= Oil class designation

Air quality designation

5.     Why is it important to consider the air quality?

Compressed air can contain unwanted substances, such as water in drop or vapor form, oil in drop or aerosol form, and dust. Depending on the compressed air’s application area, these substances can impair production results and even increase costs. Air treatment aims to produce the compressed air quality specified by the consumer. When the role of compressed air in a process is clearly defined, finding the system that will be the most profitable and efficient in that specific situation is simple. This will be determined by your finished product and the working environment of your application.

6.     What does Class 0 mean for air quality?

It is recommended that only compressed air classified as Class 0 be used in critical processes to eliminate the risk of air contamination. This level of classification does not mean zero contamination. Class 0 refers to the highest air quality possible with minimum contamination present in the air and must be lower in contamination than Class 1.

A combination of compressed air equipment can be installed to produce clean air. This may include various air filters and dryers. Identifying which contaminants need to be removed will help you to determine which equipment you need.

  1. Conclusion:

A specific compressed air class is assigned depending on the number of contaminants found. The air quality class is set according to ISO 8573-1. This standardized system defines parameters from the least to most contaminated sources of compressed air. These standards are very much useful when it comes to selecting air compressors/ compressed air systems for industrial purposes. As Compressed air is a vital energy source and is utilized in multiple operations in a food processing facility.

When properly treated, compressed air is regarded as a safe, clean utility, as compared to other energy sources. It is ultimately used to package, wrap, seal, palletize and label food products prior to storage or shipment. ISO 8573 is a European Standard that describes contaminants in compressed air and defines purity classes for them. This multi-part standard also defines approved measurement methods for testing contamination levels.

  1. Reference


Casein Powder Processing

  1. Overview 

In milk, Casein is the most important protein component, both nutrition-wise and quantity-wise, accounting for almost 80 % of milk’s total nitrogen. It can be defined as the protein which get precipitated from the milk at a pH of 4.6. It is a rich source of essential amino acids. Cow’s milk has the major quantity of casein and comprises almost 80% of the total protein content, while the rest 20% is whey or serum proteins. Casein has an industrial use – in the production of paper, textiles, paint, and leather-based industries.

The two methods from where commercial casein can be manufactured from skimmed milk – The first one would be through precipitation by acid and the other one would be through coagulation by rennet. As much of the fat, whey proteins, lactose, and other minerals should be removed through multi-stage washing in water as they can reduce the quality of the finished casein as well as the storage quality. After drying, finished casein have relatively good storage quality and can  be used in the food and chemical industries.

Casein protein is derived from milk, just like whey protein. Milk has both protein in a 4:1 ratio, in fact, the composition of milk is 80% casein and 20% whey but there would be a major difference in the absorption rate of both these proteins. Casein is basically slow digesting and will stay in the bloodstream for a few hours, this provides a constant supply of the essential amino acids required for a human body. Casein has actually cemented its importance and identity in the supplement and medication industry for genuine reasons.

Amount of casein in different categories of milk.

Casein powder processing flow chart 


2. Separation of Casein 

Easy separation is possible for casein from milk by increasing the acidic value of milk. Milk can be made more acidic by simply adding acid to it or by the addition of bacteria (such as Streptococcus thermophiles, Lactobacillus, acidophilus, and Lactobacillus bulgaricus)  which will produce lactic acid. These bacteria use a process called as Fermentation process in which they will take energy from lactose (milk-based sugar). The byproduct i.e, lactic acid will make the milk more acidic. As a result, Curd (casein protein) will be formed in the form of lumps. That casein protein can be collected and can be turned back into solution form by adding sodium hydroxide or any other alkali, this re-dissolved solution is known as Caseinate which can be sold as it is in the markets or can be processed further in milk or dairy processing plants.

Dry casein powder

Typical levels of the major colloidal and soluble components in bovine whole milk.


3. Dry Casein Production

Two types of caseins are there; Rennet casein and Acid casein.

Acid casein can be easily formed by making the skimmed milk acidic until it reaches the isoelectric point (pH± 4.6). For Rennet casein, the process used will be enzymatic coagulation. Both of these products are created by the effect of a reaction between the acid casein curd and acid casein powder with alkali (sodium hydroxide).

Caseinate is used more often in comparison to casein when it comes to its use in food industries because casein is less soluble than caseinate.

Casein (Curd)

3.1- Acid Casein 

Raw Material

  • For Acid casein production low-fat skimmed milk will be used because the shelf life of casein depends upon the amount of fat in the milk.
  • Low-fat milk should be skimmed properly because the microorganisms present in the milk can directly affect the consistency and also the color of casein that’s why the quality of raw skimmed milk matters a lot.
  • The milk should not be heated too much. Due to this, the chances of unwanted chemical reactions can take place within the components of milk which can lead to dark casein.
  • To get good quality casein and to prevent these things from happening, the milk should be microfiltered besides being pasteurized.



The raw skimmed milk should be pasteurized for 15-20 seconds at a temperature of 72deg.c.


To reach the isoelectric point of casein through acidification, that point lies between pH 4 and 4.8. The hydrogen ions present will lift the negatively charged ions of casein micelles, as a result, coagulation of casein micelles will find a place.

The acidification can take place in two ways:

(a)- Inorganic Acidification

Later on, Skimmed milk will be cooled down to about 32°C after pasteurization. pH value of the skimmed milk will be lowered between 4.3 and 4.6 by the addition of hydrochloric acid. Then, the mixture formed will be heated up with the help of a heat exchanger at a temperature of 40°C to 45°C and will be kept on hold at the same temperature for about 120 seconds. Within this period of time, the casein aggregates are formed.

(b)- Biological Acidification

In this process, skimmed milk will be cooled down to about 25°C after pasteurization. A non-gas-forming mesophilic starter is added, which basically ensures a desired decrease in the pH value in approximately 15 hours. This acidification process should progress too fast, as this may lead to uneven quality and a reduced yield. After reaching the desired pH value, the mix is stirred then heated up using a heat exchanger and kept on hold at a temperature of 50°C to 55°C.


Decanter and Washing

A decanter centrifuge separates solids from one or two liquid phases in one single continuous process. This is done using centrifugal forces that can be well beyond 3000 times greater than gravity. A decanter centrifuge separates solids from one or two liquid phases in one single continuous process. This is done using centrifugal forces that can be well beyond 3000 times greater than gravity.

Here in casein processing, a decanter will be used to remove the whey before starting the washing process so that less water is required. In the next step, the casein will be washed at a temperature of 35°C to 60°C in a three step-counter washer using water to remove whey proteins, lactose, and salts. After each step, a part of the washing water is separated into the decanter of the casein. And in the last step, the centrifugation process produces casein with a dry matter content of about 45 percent and now the product we got, is ready to be sent to the dryer.


With the application of using hot air, the casein will be dried until the moisture content gets reduced to 12 percent. The drying process for casein can be done in several ways. In the two-stage drying process, the temperature of the first step is between 50°C to 55°C and in the second stage, the temperature will be increased up to 65°C.


When the casein gets totally dried, the casein will be ground into a powder with a particle size of about 0.32mm, 0.42mm or 0.64mm.


3.2- Caseinate 


Caseinate can be made from acidic casein, acidic casein curd, or powder. But preference is given to the acid casein curd, regardless of the raw material being used. By adding water, the content of dry matter is reduced between 18 to 24 percent. Otherwise, the viscosity of the solution goes too high, because it consists of only protein.

Wet Grinding

The process of wet-grinding is done at a temperature below 45deg.c because if the temperature would be on the higher side then there are chances of causing re-agglomeration. The slurry formed will be connected in a tank equipped with a mixer of higher scale. Akali is been added to the slurry very carefully to reach the 6.7 pH value. This pH value is the viscosity of the solution at its lowest.

Which caustic solution is used depends on the product that has to be produced.

  • Sodium Caseinate

For the production of Sodium caseinate, a 10% aqueous sodium hydroxide solution is used. For this specific purpose, Sodium Bicarbonate or Sodium Phosphate solution can be used. After reaching the desired pH, the whole should be warmed as quickly as possible to 60 to 75°C. The viscosity would otherwise increase too much. The dissolving of the lye takes 30 to 60 minutes to complete.

  • Calcium Caseinate

Dissolving a Calcium Hydroxide solution is much more time-consuming compared to the caustic soda solution. That is why casein is often first dissolved in ammonia. Then, in sucrose, dissolved calcium hydroxide is added and the calcium caseinate mixture is wash dried. Most of the ammonia evaporates during the drying process.


To make the Caseinate solution that will be suitable to be sprayed, it has to be first preheated at a temperature between 80 to 90°C. By this, the viscosity of the solution is kept as low as possible and can be worked with a solution having a dry matter content of up to 24%.


The preference is given to nebulize using a nozzle because the dry matter content of the product to be dried is low. It is recommended to complete the dryer process in two steps. The sodium caseinate has to be dried in a spray-drying tower at an air temperature between 200deg.c to 230deg.c to a moisture content of 10% to 12%, the rest of the extra moisture content is reduced using a fluidized bed-type dryer. 

  1. Food safety and Hygienic Design 

Most dairy processes take place at a relatively high pH and under wet conditions, which create an ideal environment for a variety of micro-organisms to grow – such as disease-causing micro-organisms. It is therefore important that the entire system is built according to hygienic design standards – so it is cleanable to a microbial level. After the cleaning process, disinfection can kill off any remaining vegetative microorganisms.

In case, the machinery cannot be emptied fully, the equipment will lose its clean status, even after it has been cleaned but was set aside for a certain period of time. The machinery has to be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected before the production process can start again.




Lactose Powder Processing

Lactose is one of the main constituents of animal milk, acting as an energy carrier in milk. And due to its physiological and functional characteristics, lactose made in the industries is being used on a large scale in the food category and in the pharmaceutical industries. Lactose is made from whey, a byproduct of casein production and cheese making, by crystallizing the oversaturated solution of whey concentrate. The world’s production amounts to almost 500,000 tons and more. Lactose is the most abundant constituent after water, also the main carb in the milk of virtually all mammalian species.

Lactose content in dairy foods.

Cow milk has 4% to 5% lactose, so a large part of the dry matter content of the milk is covered by lactose. Pure lactose forms large, hard crystals which have a low solubility. For these reasons, lactose is also known as sand sugar. 

Uses of lactose

    • Lactose is massively used in the food and pharmaceutical industries.
    • In food industries, it is used for relative sweetness and being a source of energy.
    • Lactose maintains the crystallized sugar texture without causing the food to become too sweet.
    • Lactose is used in the confectionery industry to produce caramel flavors through the Maillard reaction, usually with milk proteins, often added with lactose in the form of sweetened condensed milk.
    • Lactose can be used in many products, like dairy products, dried soups, and sauces, jam, mayonnaise, and candy.
    • Lactose applications range from an energy source for lactic acid bacteria during dairy product fermentation, in which its breakdown leads to the formation of specific components. 

Dry Lactose Processing

The quality of the dry lactose (powder form) entirely depends upon the whey. In dry lactose manufacturing units, whey imported from different dairy units and it is tested on daily basis for pH, nitrates, and temperature. Only after detailed analysis in the QA laboratory, the whey enters the processing area. Whey gets stored in large holding tanks with temperatures below 6°C to maintain the functional benefits of the whey and ensure optimal microbiology.

Dry lactose powder 

In processing, whey is subjected to advanced separation and filtration mechanisms to bring out the desired features. By leading the Whey through a network of membranes, we separate the liquid into Retentate for protein ingredients and permeates for lactose ingredients. After separation from Retentate, Permeate is refined and concentrated then the concentrated liquid will be sent for crystallization.  After crystallization, the moist lactose material is led to the advanced bed dryers, here hot air flows through the product until the leftover water is dried out. The finished product is then bagged automatically, with no contact with human hands. 

Lactose Production


        1. Pre- Preparation of Whey

Lactose can be made from whey as well as whey permeate. Before the whey permeate can be used to derive lactose, fine cheese parts and the present amount of fat will be separated as Whey cream. And when the whey permeate will be used, then the proteins of whey will be removed by the process of ultrafiltration.


        1. Evaporation 


Then the whey or whey permeate will be concentrated by means of evaporation at a temperature of almost 60deg.c, until the dry matter content reaches 60-62%. Lactose concentration gets increased after this process. During the evaporation of whey, the temperature would not be raised further just to prevent the proteins from denaturation. If required, the whey permeates will be pre-concentrated.



        1. Crystallizing 

Lactose process-crystallization 

After evaporation, the whey or whey permeate will move further for crystallization. In the crystallization tank, ent-crystals will be added and conditioned cooling will take place in order for the whole to crystallize due to supersaturation. The cooling speed should not be too high, just to ensure the crystals formed should be of minimal size 0-2mm.


        1. Decanting and Washing

Lactose process-decantation (removal of water & impurities)

After crystallization, the formed lactose crystals will be separated using mother liquor by means of two decanters placed in the sequence. In the second decanter, all the impurities will be removed from the lactose crystals using washing water.


        1. Drying 

After the decanter, lactose will move further toward the drying section. To lower the moisture content, the lactose will be dried after the second decanter by using Fluid type bed dryer. Depending upon the application, drying will take place until the moisture content reaches between 0.1 to 0.5%. For producing α-lactose, hot air drying will take place for the duration of 15 to 20 minutes without heating the product over 92°C and prevent the formation of β-lactose.

Dried lactose is then coolest and transported by means of dry air with a temperature of approx. 30°C. Fine matter in the sucked air is separated by means of a bag filter and will be transported back to the drying section.

Fluid-type bed dryer 

        1. Grinding 


After drying, the final product is sent for grinding to the desired size and wrapped in sacks.



There are abundant uses and functionalities of lactose, not just in our daily lives but also in the Industrial world.

  • The preferred type of milk for producing good quality/quantity lactose is Non-fat skimmed milk.
  • Lactose is later fermented and can be used to produce foods like cheese, yogurt, kefir, and acidified (sour) milk. Lactose is also preferred to produce lactic acid, which has a number of uses in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. The process of fermentation involves adding lactic acid bacteria (and less commonly, yeast) to milk or to a milk product.
  • Lactose is commonly used as a Cutting agent, which is prevalent in illegal drug production. And the substances used for this process are typically less expensive than the recreational drugs itself.
  • Lactose intolerant is a term where a human body is unable to break down and digest lactose that’s consumed in milk and other dairy products. The condition usually causes discomfort in the stomach. A body becomes lactose intolerant when it doesn’t produce enough lactase enzymes.
  • The main benefit of lactose-free milk is allowing people with lactose intolerance to enjoy milk and dairy products without triggering uncomfortable symptoms.



Probiotic and Prebiotic drinks – An overview

1. An Introduction to Probiotics & Prebiotics

Probiotics are live bacteria, when consumed adequately confer good health benefits to the human body. Nowadays, humans have started to consume junk food that causes an accumulation of harmful bacteria that causes diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, gastric inflammation, and other health issues, so in these cases, probiotics can help us maintain the gut microflora by destroying the harmful bacteria.

The food feeds probiotic bacteria and helps them to grow. Prebiotics can’t be digested by the human body. Prebiotics promotes the growth of the colonizing bacteria in the gut that are beneficial. Prebiotics help in maintaining normal bowel function i.e., Prebiotic fiber cause foods to be digested normally not quickly. Prebiotics help in preventing colon cancer by sweeping away carcinogens and dangerous toxins. Probiotic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium digest inulin in the gut and produce short-chain fatty acids.

2. How do probiotics work in the human gut?

To improve the human gut flora and destroy the bad bacteria the mechanism of probiotics includes:

        • Production of antimicrobials:

Production of antimicrobials such as organic acids (acetic acid and lactic acid are the main antimicrobial compounds responsible for the inhibitory activity of probiotics against pathogens). And the production of antibacterial substances termed bacteriocins.

        • Increased adhesion & inhibition of pathogen adhesion:

The interaction between surface proteins and mucins may inhibit the colonization of pathogenic bacteria and are a result of antagonistic activity by some strains of probiotics against the adhesion of gastrointestinal pathogens.

        • Enhancement of epithelial barrier:

The intestinal barrier is a major defense mechanism used to maintain epithelial integrity and to protect the organism from the environment. Consumption of non-pathogenic bacteria can contribute to intestinal barrier function, and probiotic bacteria have been extensively studied for their involvement in the maintenance of this barrier.

        • Modulation of the immune system:

These immunomodulatory effects are due to the interaction of probiotic bacteria with epithelial cells and Dendritic cells and with monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes.

        • Competitive exclusion of pathogenic bacteria:

When the probiotics are consumed the bacteria will compete with the pathogenic bacteria and destroy them by reducing the Ph and secreting the antimicrobials.

3. How do prebiotics help the probiotics & human body when they are consumed? 

        • Prebiotics help the probiotics to survive, by providing the required nutrition they need. That helps probiotic bacteria to grow and colonize the human intestinal gut.
        • Prebiotics Suppress the putrefactive bacteria because they act on the tissues and prebiotics stimulate the beneficial flora in the human gut creating unfavorable conditions for the pathogenic bacteria.
        • Dietary fibers act as effective prebiotics by stimulating main shifts indirectly affecting the mucosal immune system and gut microbial composition, causing an advancement in intestinal inflammatory disorders and the complete immune response.
        • SCFA are formed when the prebiotics are fermented in the large intestine that acts as carbon and energy sources for the probiotic bacteria.
        • As microbiota have been tangled in the pathogenesis of numerous GI disorders, for this purpose currently the research is focused on the practice of prebiotics. Since many of these polysaccharides can be metabolized by intestinal microflora, producing SCFA (including acetate, butyrate & propionate).

 4. Where do we find the probiotics and the products that are developed by the food industry?

In India, people with different cultures & regions have different cuisines. The best part is that every meal consists of fermented food such as dahi, lassi, tempeh, pickles, etc. These fermented foods have good probiotic bacteria good that help in maintaining good gut health. Some other products that contain probiotic bacteria are yogurt, miso, sauerkraut, kefir, etc. Due to the increase in population and work timings, people have habituated to instant things and food processing industries have developed probiotic products that are healthy & can be consumed instantly. The products that are available in the market are Yakult, epigamia yogurt, good belly, beyond berry, Dan active, etc.

Sources of prebiotics and the products that are available in the market

Sources of prebiotics are Oligosaccharides (garlic asparagus, soybean, wheat bran, etc), Fructans (powder from tubers of artichoke), Human kappa casein, and derived glycomacropeptide (chymotrypsin and pepsin hydrolysate), Stachyose and raffinose (soybean extract), Casein macro peptide (Bovine milk), Lactulose (a synthetic derivative of lactose).

And the products that are available in the market are VSL#3, Kiwi – lens, Prebiotic soups, Prebiotic nana flakes, Oli pop, Wonder drink, kevita prebiotic shots.

  1. What’s the deal with the prebiotic and probiotic drinks?

Probiotic drinks & prebiotic drinks became a trending topic in the market and have huge demand worldwide because of their health benefits. These drinks are available in nearby stores, and the labels of these drinks claim the benefits like “energy-boosting & detoxifying”. “Probiotics are not essential to our daily diet, but they are important in stronger immunity and healthful gut,” says the author Jackie, writer of “The with or without meat cookbook”.

The daily intake of food & beverages that have added nutrients and fortification functional foods including prebiotics is a global consumer trend. prebiotics can’t be digested and can improve the growth of probiotic bacteria. Besides the health benefits prebiotics are also used for enhancing the sensory features, lipid functionalities in low calories beverages & replace sugar.

      • Probiotics and prebiotic drinks do not improve the healthy immune system in minutes, but daily consumption may decrease GI bloat and help prevent constipation.
      • Prebiotics that are been incorporated in beverages mainly dairy industry are galactooligosaccharides, which are mostly used in dairy products & yogurts due to their stability in high water content & low Ph products, and the fructooligosaccharides used for instant beverages and they are more persistent on solid medium, these help in enhancing the products.
      • While these e beverages are beneficial for health, consuming probiotics ad other foods can cause throwing away the balance of the bacteria in the intestine.

6. Understanding the concepts of Symbiotic, Para probiotics & Postbiotics.

The technological advancement changed the thought process of this generation, that have been resulting in the development of new products with more effectiveness in usage & by improving health benefits.

The concept of synbiotics is “a combination of probiotics and prebiotics that have a good influence on the host’s health”. Combining probiotics and prebiotics is thought to be a promising new method, and there is currently a chance to test their efficacy and possible application in IBD in humans.

However, just a few studies supporting the use of synbiotic supplements in IBD have been published. In a study done by Ishikawa H et al., 2011 the combination of Bifidobacterium breve strain Yakult and GOS is tested on 41 patients with active ulcerative colitis, and it resulted in the synbiotic group, there was a significant reduction in clinical and endoscopic UC activity, as well as a decrease in the level of myeloperoxidase in rectal lavages as disease activity increased.

And now there are para probiotics, in these products the inactivated bacterial strains, fragments are used for consumption when consumed adequately they confer good health benefits. The probiotics have live microbes that can be dangerous to people with low immunity, premature babies, and impaired intestinal barriers. Term Para probiotics are introduced by Taverntiti et al. in 2011.

Para probiotics hold the ability to regulate the immune systems, antiproliferative and antioxidant activities. Para probiotics can be administered to weaker immunity people and the elderly. These products are also characterized by greater stability and can be stored without the cold chain, thereby facilitating industrial handling and wide commercialization.

Postbiotics refer to the waste material produced by the probiotics after consuming the prebiotics i.e., As intestinal microbes consume prebiotic fiber, the result of that fermentation or consumption is what is known as postbiotics. Organic acids, short-chain fatty acids, tryptophan, and bacteriocins are the most important postbiotics. Using postbiotics may provide direct or indirect benefits.

The impact of postbiotics on the host cells results in direct advantages. Indirect effects include the support of the proliferation of beneficial microbial strains and the suppression of the formation of harmful strains. Later in the essay, the methods of action are described. Postbiotics have a wide range of effects, just as prebiotics, depending on the type of microorganism, strain, and metabolic product. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant characteristics of postbiotics, particularly SCFA, are the most important benefits.

7. Upshot

From the above information, we have got an overall idea of pro & prebiotic drinks, para probiotics, postbiotics & synbiotics. Every product has its advantages and disadvantages, overdosage of can create unfavorable situations in gut health. there is no instant medicine that can act on the immune system, regular consumption may result in the gradual improvement of health. For example, prebiotic fiber should be 20 grams daily if exceeds causes gastrointestinal problems, etc. And consumption of different foods at a time may change the gut flora and can throw away the required beneficial bacteria.

8. References

Pasta Processing and their types

  1. Introduction

Pasta is a food typically made from an unleavened wheat flour dough mixed with water or eggs and formed into sheets or other shapes. Many different cultures have eaten pasta over a large number of periods. Most Italian-type pasta is made from semolina, a grain product taken from the endosperm of durum wheat during milling.

Many different types of meals can be created with pasta. It tastes good and fills your stomach. Pasta as food represents an inexpensive means of improving diet quality in developed countries and helps to reduce hunger problems in developing countries. The unique combination of properties of cheapness, ease of preparation, versatility, nutritive value, and long shelf life will ensure that pasta will continue to play a role of importance as world demand for cereals increases. 

  1. Processing and extrusion of pasta

Pasta products are manufactured by mixing flour with water and other ingredients into the homogeneous dough and extruding this dough through a variety of dies.

Pasta processing consists of three main unit operations.

  • Hydrating and mixing- kneading of semolina to make the dough (Formation of gluten network)
  • Shaping the dough through extrusion
  • Stabilizing the shaped pasta pieces, usually by using different dye



  1. Equipment used for Pasta Processing

Most pasta is manufactured by continuous, high-capacity extruders, which operate on the auger extrusion principle in which kneading, and extrusion are performed in a single operation.

3.1 Powder Blender

Mixing formula ingredients is often carried out in mixer seems to have better mixing results in commercial noodle production.


The paddle design is generally employed where friable materials are being blended. Horizontal noodle dough mixer consists of several elements: a centrally mounted horizontal shaft that rotates within a cylindrical container, paddles, ploughs mixing elements that are attached to the centrally mounted shaft, special openings at the top for feeding materials, manually tilt able tank operated.

  3.2. Rolling machine

The plate rolling machine is a type of metal forming machine which utilizes work rollers to produce sheet metal round processing and forming. The plate rolling machine is also known by plate bending roller. Rolling machine is used to roll the dough into thin sheets. Rolling machine helps to provide pasta of good texture


3.3 Extrusion machine or slitter machine

Inside the Extruder, the material is compacted, compressed as it moves forward towards the die. This occurs because the material is picked by rotating screw inside a stationery barrel which has grooves on its internal surface.

The grooves enable the sticky, plastic mass to move forward and mix thoroughly under controlled shear and temperature. Teflon dies tend to have too smooth surface and produce slippery pasta with too smooth surface and sauces do not adhere easily to such product.

 3.4   Drying machine

In the Drier Machine, the product is dried under controlled humidity so that drying is neither too slow nor too fast. Too slow drying of product will damage the product as the product is rendered sticky or moldy. Too fast drying will crack the pasta. It might be necessary to ascertain and control different drying times for different product to get optimal results.

A properly extruded and dried pasta product would be firm, but flexible enough to be bent to considerable degree before cracking. In general, product retains about 10% moisture after drying.

3.5   Cooling and Packaging

Before packing, it might be essential to cool the pasta coming out from the main dryer.  After drying pasta is then collected into cooling drum, where the machine adjusted to a programmed temperature. After sealing pasta move into a spiral freezer where they are Individually Quick Frozen at -45 degrees centigrade.

This is generally done by belt conveyors and cooling fans to remove the excess heat before final packing. Ideally, pasta should have no more than 10% moisture before packing to prevent mold growth.

  1. Types of Pasta

Pasta has become one of the most common foods in the Indian kitchens. Pasta is categorized in different types according to their shapes and sizes. There are different types of pasta available in market in which some of them are mentioned below.  Following are some types of pasta available in market.

Pasta is one of the most favorite foods for all age groups. Basic ingredients for the manufacturing of pasta which is typically used are flour, eggs, salts, and water. There are more than 300 types of pasta available in market based on their shapes and sizes, in which penne, spaghetti, farfalle is most commonly used. Pasta can be cooked by adding more and more vegetables in it or it can be consumed with sauces.

  1. Reference


Biogas -A way out for Garbage

  1. Introduction

Biogas generation is an intriguing method for recovering nutrients and renewable energy from various organic waste sources. The technique might be used to make value-added compounds from mixed cultures, and it could also be used in integrated bioenergy production systems.

 Methane (50–75%) and carbon dioxide (25–50%) are the most common gases found in biogas, along with tiny amounts of other gases and water vapor. In the anaerobic digestion (AD) process, microbes degrade various organic materials to produce biogas. Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, cellulose, and hemicelluloses should all be present in the biomass inputs for a successful anaerobic digestion process. The carbohydrate, protein, and fat composition all affect the ultimate gas production. The biogas digestion process may be broken down into four stages. The metabolic transformation is carried out by various groups of microorganisms in each step.

The four phases are:

    • Hydrolysis: complex organic matter, such as proteins, is converted into simple soluble products, such as amino acids.
    • Hydrolysis: complex organic matter, such as proteins, is converted into simple soluble products, such as amino acids.
    • Acidogenesis: soluble products are converted to volatile fatty acids and CO2.
    • Acetogenesis: volatile fatty acids are converted to acetate and H2.
    • Methanogenesis: acetate and CO2 + H2 are converted to methane gas.

This ability has been used in man-made systems (bioreactors) to produce energy for centuries. Biogas is a good energy source that produces 5.5–7 kWh/m3, and the total energy is proportional to the amount of methane present.

  1. Working of biogas plant

 2.1. Raw Materials for Biogas

Organic input materials like food scraps, fats, and sludge can be used as substrates in a biogas plant. Renewable resources like maize, beets, and grass are used to feed both animals like cows and pigs and microorganisms in the biogas plant. The biogas facility also receives manure and feces.

2.2. Process of Biogas formation

The substrate is degraded by the microorganisms in the fermenter, which is heated to around 38-40°C and is light and oxygen-free. Biogas, primarily composed of methane, is the product of this fermentation process. However, biogas also contains strong hydrogen sulfide.

A stainless-steel fermenter has the distinct benefit of withstanding hydrogen sulfide assaults and remaining functional for decades. Furthermore, a stainless-steel fermenter allows the biogas plant to be operated in the thermophile temperature range (up to 56 °C). After fermentation, the substrate is carried to the fermentation leftovers end storage tank, where it may be recovered for future use.

 2.3. Handling byproducts

The leftovers can be used to make high-quality fertilizer. The benefit: Biogas manure has a reduced viscosity, which allows it to infiltrate the ground more rapidly. Furthermore, the fermentation byproduct frequently has a greater fertilizer value and is less smell strong.

However, drying it and utilizing it as a dry fertilizer is another alternative. The biogas produced is kept in the tank’s roof and then burnt to create electricity and heat in a combined heat and power plant (CHP). Electricity is immediately supplied to the electricity grid. The heat produced can be used to heat a structure, dry wood, or harvest items.

3. The basic factors that affect anaerobic digestion are

 3.1 .Temperature:

In this factor, a distinction is made between 3 different temperature regimes mesophilic (20 – 40 ºC), psychrophilic (10 – 20 ºC), and thermophilic (50 – 60 ºC). The lower the temperature, the slower the bacterial growth and conversion processes. Therefore, a longer retention time is needed.

        • In psychrophilic temperatures, the bacteria will be stable, and no additional heat is required but there will be low production of the biogas, the lowest pathogen reduction. The advantage is it is the least costly to construct and easiest to manage
        • In the mesophilic temperature range, in this range the bacteria are more stable than the thermophilic bacteria, they have a shorter retention time. There will be moderate management and moderate monitoring required. The drawbacks are that additional heat is required, there will be moderate pathogen reduction, and costly to construct.
        • And in the thermophilic temperature range, there is the shortest retention time, highest biogas production, and highest pathogen reduction. The disadvantages of these temperature ranges are, that the bacteria are least stable, additional heat is required for digestion, the monitoring should be intensive, most costly to construct, and hardest to manage.

 3.2 pH:

When compared to other pH range values, it has been experimentally proven that substrates with an optimal range value of pH 7 have a greater biogas generation yield and degradation efficiency. Because microorganism, particularly methanogens, is very sensitive to acidic ambient circumstances, the pH value plays a crucial role. As a result of the acidic environment, they are unable to thrive and produce methane. Increasing the pH value over 7.5 and approaching 8 can, on the other hand, lead to the growth of methanogens, which hinders the acetogenesis process. A particular quantity of buffer solution, such as CaCo3 or lime, is given to the system to keep the pH value in an equilibrium state. Although to produce a better production of biogas, the ideal pH value should be kept between 7.5 and 8.              

3.3. Composition of the food waste

Knowing the composition is necessary for predicting the reaction’s course and pace, as well as the amount of biogas produced. The bio-methanization potential or rate of methane generation is determined by four key concentrations: lipids, proteins, carbs, and cellulose. High lipid content AD systems have a high bio-methanization efficiency, but due to their complicated structure, they require a longer retention time. Proteins have the shortest retention time span, followed by carbs and cellulose. 

  1. Sources of biogas production

Biogas may be obtained in several different methods:

      • landfill sites.
      • wastewater treatment.
      • co-digestion of manure.
      • other sources. 

  1. What will the remaining Digested substrate be used for? 

Anaerobic digestion of organic materials results in the production of digestate in addition to biogas. After digestion, the latter is the substrate that remains. Because of its nitrogen concentration and the fertilizing effects of its flow characteristics, digestate is a desirable fertilizer. Anaerobic digestion can also inactivate weed seeds, germs, viruses, and other potential pathogens, especially when longer retention durations and higher temperature regimes are utilized.

6 . Biogas End Uses

Biogas may be utilized to heat buildings, power boilers, and even power the digester itself with little to no processing on-site. Biogas can be used in CHP systems or simply converted to electricity via a combustion engine, fuel cell, or gas turbine, with the resulting electricity being used on-site or sold to the grid.

Digestate is the nutrient-dense solid or liquid that remains after digestion; it contains all the recycling nutrients included in the original organic material, but in a form that is more readily available to plants and soil builders. The feedstock used in the digester will determine the digestate’s composition and nutritional value. Liquid digestate may be sprayed on farms as a fertilizer, reducing the need for synthetic fertilizers. Solid digestate can be used as cow bedding or composted after mild processing. To assure digestate safety and quality control, the biogas industry has lately taken steps to develop a digestate certification framework.

6.1 Renewable Natural Gas

Biomethane, also known as renewable natural gas (RNG), is biogas that has been purified to remove CO2, water vapor, and other trace gases to fulfill natural gas market requirements. Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) may be injected into the existing natural gas system (including pipelines) and utilized in place of conventional natural gas. The remaining natural gas is utilized for commercial and industrial applications (heating and cooking).

6.2 Compressed Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas

Renewable Natural Gas may be converted to compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG) for use as a motor fuel, much like regular natural gas (LNG). CNG-powered vehicles are equivalent to gasoline-powered vehicles in terms of fuel economy, and they may be used in light- to heavy-duty vehicles. LNG is not as widely used as CNG because it is more expensive to produce and store, even though its higher density makes it better fuel for heavy-duty vehicles driving long distances. CNG and LNG are most suited for fleet vehicles that return to a base for refilling, allowing fueling infrastructure expenditures to be maximized.

7.  References

Enzymes In flour: And its Baking Application

  1. Introduction

Enzymes are proteins that act as biological catalysts. Catalysts are generally used to     accelerate the chemical reaction. An enzyme is a substance that acts as a catalyst in the living organism to regulate the rate of chemical reactions. Almost all proteins are enzymes, but all enzymes are not proteins. It helps to boost metabolism.

Enzymes are a kind of catalyst that can work within mild conditions of temperature, and pH and carry out chemical reactions at a high rate. Some enzymes are active without co- enzymes, but some are not. So, the types of enzymes that are inactive in the absence of its co-enzyme is called apoenzyme and enzymes that produce the active form of enzyme, in the presence of co- enzyme is called holoenzyme.


Apoenzymes + Co-enzymes           ⇒           Holoenzymes


  1. Types of Enzymes in Flour

Enzymes are usually added to modify dough rheology, gas retention, and crumb softness in bread manufacture. Enzymes used in bakery products to facilitate chemical reactions without undergoing any chance in their molecular structure.

Following are the types of enzymes present in flour:

                      2.1 Diastase/ Amylase

Diastase breaks and converts it into malt sugar. Diastase or Amylase is destroyed at 77    degrees centigrade. The amount of diastase in grain varies from year to year, depending on harvest conditions.

                     2.2 Protease

Protease is found in flour but also in malt and yeast. Proteins that cannot be dissolved in water can be converted by protease into another form. Due to presence of gluten, the dough becomes more elastic and softer and produces amino acids. Protease starts to work immediately after the dough is mixed.  It is mostly used to produce pan bread, cracker, wafer, and biscuits.

                      2.3 Lipoxygenases

Lipoxygenases is present in soy- flour, also has an oxidative effect on the gluten.

                      2.4 Hemicellulose, Pentosanes and Xylanases

Wheat flour contains about 2-3% pentosans that can bind up to 10 times of their weight of water. These pentosans belongs to the category of hemicelluloses.

  1. Application of Enzyme in Baking

Enzymes as technological aids are usually added to flour, during the mixing step of the bread-making process. The enzymes most frequently used in bread-making are the α-amylases from different origin.

Amylases and other starch-converting enzymes. The industrial processing of starch is usually started by α-amylases. Following are the enzymes added to the flour to enhance their processing and some other purposes.


There are various types of enzymes used in baking industries. Some of the enzymes are already present in different flours but for baking some enzymes are generally added for different purposes.

Following are the enzymes added to the flour during baking


 3.1 Maltase

Maltase is used to standardize the alpha amylase activity to most bread flour. Malted wheat or barley flour is added at the bakery.


3.2 Lipoxygenase

Lipoxygenases are present in soy flour that oxidizes the fat in flour to form peroxidases. Peroxidases bleach the flour pigments which result in crumb color.

3.3 Fungal Amylase

It is used to standardize the alpha amylase activity of bread flour. Fungal amylase is commonly used in dough conditioning.

3.4 Protease

Protease breaks down the gluten protein in wheat flour. For bread making this can improve gas retention, but with a tradeoff for less tolerance. 

3.5 Transglutaminase

Transglutaminase creates links between gluten molecules and strengthens the dough.

  1. Primary enzymes used for baking

 4.1 Enhance dough retention capacity and softness of the dough

Enzymes can be added to reduce mixing time, to decrease dough consistency, to assure dough uniformity, to regulate gluten strength in bread, to control bread texture and to improve flavor.

4.2 Modifiers of dough handling properties

Extra enzymes added to the dough improve control of the baking process, allowing the use of different baking processes, reducing process time. 

4.3 Dough strengthener

The main function of dough strengthener is it works like an emulsifier by bonding with proteins and help to improve the gluten strength. They are added to the dough to improve texture, symmetry, volume, etc. of the bakery product. 

4.4 Crumb softeners (anti-staling agents)

Enzymes are also used to delay the staling process, to reduce waste and ease pressure within the supply chain.

5. References



Noodles : Types of Flour and Manufacturing

  1. Introduction

 Noodles are staple foods in many regions of the world. Instant noodles were born and manufactured by Nissin Foods, in Japan, in 1958. It is made from an unleavened dough that is rolled flat and cut stretched, or extruded into long strips or of different shapes. Noodles are a long, thin pieces of food made from a mixture of flour, water, and eggs. Most noodle types share the typical processing steps of mixing ingredients, kneading, rolling, or sheeting the dough, and cutting it into pieces. Noodles are usually consumed in wet, boiled, steamed, or fried form.

Noodles is produced in over 80 countries worldwide. It is one of the most important staple foods in Asia. Asian noodles are evolved into various types and forms. Noodles or pasta are made from very simple formulas. Noodles manufactured in United States use eggs, but in other parts of the world, egg is not a required ingredient, in place of eggs, salt is used everywhere.

Noodles is a food represents an inexpensive means of improving diet quality in developed countries and helps to reduce hunger problems in developing countries. For the manufacturing of noodles, generally Durum wheat is used.

  1. Types of flour used for making Noodles 

Noodles are most versatile food items in the world. We can eat noodles either with vegetables or on their own. Noodles can be consumed with sauces to enhance their taste and it can also be consumed with lots of vegetables to enhance their nutritional value.

For making noodles, five basic ingredients are used: Water, Salt, eggs, oil, and the very important ingredient is flour. Different kinds of flour are used for making noodles for health, taste, and texture reasons. Following are the flour generally used for manufacturing of noodles.

2.1 All-purpose flour

All-purpose flour is the most common flour used for making different kinds of dishes. Just like the name suggests, it is good to use for all purposes. Benefits of using all-purpose flour is, its texture, color, and elasticity.

2.2 Semolina flour

Semolina is referred to as Noodle or Pasta flour because of its coarser texture. Semolina has very high gluten content which helps in binding and gives its firm texture. But the disadvantage of semolina flour for Gluten intolerant people can’t consume noodle made from Semolina flour. 

2.3 Whole wheat flour

Whole wheat flour is the ingredient which is mostly used for noodle manufacturing. This flour adds texture and nutrition along with this it is a healthier option, being less refined and containing lower carbs than other flour.  Wheat flour contains less calories than other refined kind of Noodles.



Wheat noodles are manufactured by mixing durum wheat flour, water, and salt. For making wheat noodles, wheat flour is the main ingredients, and their appearance and texture strongly depends on flour characteristics. Swelling and gelatinization characteristics of wheat flour determine whether the surface of noodles is sticky or hard.

2.4 Corn Flour

Corn flour is gluten free flour so, it is a good option for gluten intolerant patient. The noodles made up of corn flour has distinct taste of corn, also it creates a slightly grainer texture than wheat noodles. Corn- flour can be used for noodles making by mixing with other flour also.

2.5 Quinoa flour

Quinoa flour is the best flour made by grinding the grains into powder. It is the best flour because this flour all the health benefits including high protein, high fiber, low glycemic index, which is good for controlling blood sugar level.

2.6 Buckwheat flour

Buckwheat is like whole grain, but the main difference is that it is gluten- free. It is popular ingredient because of its nutritional value, it is high in minerals and antioxidants. The noodles made from this flour is basically chewy and grainy.

2.7 Rice Flour

Rice noodles have a long history. It can be used in different forms, such as, fresh dried, and instant noodles which provides variation by which rice is enjoyed in our diet. Rice is a staple food used all over the world. It delivers both benefits of gluten- free and low glycemic index.

2.8 Plantain Flour

Plantain is basically a variety of banana which is hybrid of two species, i.e., Musa acuminata and Musa balbiciana. The botanical name of plantain is Musa paradiciaca. Mature green plantain was processed into plantain flour. Plantain flour is made by peeling, washing, slicing, drying, and grinding of green plantain.

Instant noodles are classified into two types based on methods used for removal of moisture.

  1. Instant dried noodles
  2. Instant fried noodles

In dried noodles, the moisture of noodles is removed by the process of hot air drying to decrease the moisture content to about 8 – 12 %. Frying the noodles decreases the moisture content to about 2-5 %. But the disadvantage of frying is it contains about 15-20% oil. So, this is more susceptible to oxidation resulting in rancidity and have health issues due to higher oil and fat content.

There are different types of noodles present in market based on brands, in which Maggi -2-minute Noodles is most popular brand of instant Noodles in India. Because of busy lifestyle, easy to cook food is the need of the adults now-a-days. Eating nutritious food, incorporating physical activities and good taste is the key to maintain the healthy lifestyle.    

  1. Manufacturing of noodles

Noodle manufacturing comprises of mixing of raw materials, resting the dough, sheeting the dough into sheets, and gradually sheeting the dough into specified thickness and slitting into noodle strands.

For instant noodle preparation, strands are steamed and dehydrated by drying or frying followed by cooling and packaging. These are the following steps followed for the manufacturing of noodles:

3.1 Mixing and kneading                                                             

As a first step, the wheat flour made up of durum wheat goes into the mixing machine. Then, dough is kneaded with water at room temperature of about 20 to 30 degrees centigrade. Kneading machine mixes the ingredients slowly without causing friction or heating the dough. In more automated industrial process, kneading is made inside vats with a single rotating shaft for 15 to 20 minutes with a speed between 29 to 100 revolution per minute.

3.2 Roller belt

After mixing and kneading the dough it goes into rotating rollers to form sheets. This roller belt helps to distribute the noodles evenly. Then we leave the dough for a specific time to mature. As after rolling the thickness of roller reduces about 1 mm to 1.5 mm. This machine is suitable to produce flat pasta such as lasagna, Fettuccine, and Spaghetti.

3.3 Cutter/ Slitter Machine

Slitter machine is also named as Noodle cutter. It is a type of cutter which can slit dough sheets into noodles. Noodle cutting is the final procedure in noodle manufacturing, so it plays a crucial role. With the help of slitter these instant noodles are made even thinner. Slitter cut the noodles in strand generally of about 2 inches wide and 13 inches long.

3.4 Steaming Machine

Steaming of noodles can be done for around 4 to 5 minutes at 100 degrees centigrade. Steamed noodles are partially cooked by treating fresh noodles with either saturated or unsaturated steam before they are marketed. Steamed noodles are prepared using a semi-automatic steamer.

3.5. Dehydration process

After steaming, most of the noodles are dehydrated either by oil frying or by air drying, thus fried or un- fried noodles is formed. Drying of noodle is very important and risky process because when the noodle is too dried it will break down and if it is dried too slowly it will spoil.

3.6 Cooling

After steaming the noodles, it should be goes through the cooling machine for further cooling of noodles. It should be kept in cooling machine for 4-5 minutes.

3.7. Packaging

The dried and cooled noodles are then put into firm bags and containers as required and then it is used for packaging. The instant noodles can also be garnished and packed into plastic bags. Then the packed noodles can be transported in market for sale.

  1. Shelf life of Noodle

Shelf life of noodles depends on various factors like best-by-date, preparation method and how it was stored. Shelf life of dry pasta is roughly about 1 to 2 years and cooked or processed noodles is about 4 to 5 days in freezer and 1 week in refrigerator. 

  1. Nutritional benefits of Noodles

Noodles are generally very low in calorie and fiber. It is a good source of energy. Noodles can help with stomach problems, and it may help lower cholesterol. Cooked noodles contain 34% carbohydrate, 6% protein, low amount of fat with moderate amount of manganese.

5.1 Sustained Energy

Cooked noodles provide 34% carbohydrates which is a crucial fuel for our brain and muscle. It releases energy in a slow and sustained level. It is consumed by the players before playing to enhance their energy level.

5.2 Low sodium and cholesterol free

The amount of sodium is very low in noodles, and it is cholesterol free.  It helps with stomach problems. Noodles is a good source of several essential nutrients including iron and B- vitamin.

Noodles contain 6% protein and low amount of fat. It is a good source of complex carbohydrate. It can be consumed to enhance calorie. Noodles can be combined with vegetables for a complete meal that puts you well on the path of hitting dietary goals.

  1. Reference


Plantain- An Introduction

  1. Introduction


Plantain belongs to monocotyledonous family, Genus Musa and its botanical name is Musa paradiciaca. Plantain is a staple food grown throughout the tropical and subtropical region. It is ubiquitous in India so it is available throughout the year. It is major source of carbohydrate, vitamins and minerals.

Plantain is highly perishable. It possesses wide variety o f flavors. It can either be used for the domestic consumptions as well as it is used for making Plantain flour, Biscuits, cakes, Bread, Pan-cakes etc. It is a cheap source of iron, protein and Vitamin A.

Plantain has nutritional as well as medicinal values. It can be used for the treatment of diabetes, sore- throat, diarrhea, vomiting, apart from that it is major diet in the production of soyamusa which can be used in the treatment of kwashiorkor.

Plantain can be used as a substitute for wheat flour, cassava flour and all purpose flour, so that it is beneficial especially for diabetic patients. Plantain can be converted into flour and chips to improve its durability. It is also used to make infant foods like plantain porridge. According to FAO more than 2.5 million metric tons of plantains are produced in Nigeria annually.

Plantains are tougher and starchier than banana, also it has thicker, and harder skin compared to banana. Plantain and Banana are genetically similar but primarily we can eat plantain after cooking.

  1. Types of plantain

Plantain grows just like banana, in bunches called “hands”. The trees may vary in size from 12- 15 feet to 25- 30 feet tall with huge broad leaves. Plantain is called as Kaccha kela in India, Dodo in Western Nigeria and Sagging Saba in Philippines.

Plantain can be found in four varieties, based on their bunch:

  • French Plantain
  • French horn
  • False horn
  • Horn Plantain

Both types of plantain grow in India, Africa, Egypt and Tropical America, but French plantain also found in Indonesia and Islands of the Pacific.

  1. Health Benefits of Plantain

Plantain is very beneficial for our health. Plantain is good source of Vitamin A, C and B- 6 and the mineral, magnesium and potassium.

  • Antioxidant

Plantain is rich in Vitamin C which acts as an antioxidant. Antioxidant helps in boosting our immune system. Protects your body from free radical damage that associated with aging, heart disease, and even some types of cancer.

  • Potassium

Plantain contains high amount of potassium which is essential for maintaining cells, regulates body electrolytes and the body fluid that controls our heart rate and blood pressure.

  • Fiber

Plantain contains Fiber which helps in lowering our cholesterol level, achieves optimal digestion and keeps your heart functioning properly.

  • Vitamin B 6 content

Plantain contains good amount of Vitamin B 6 which helps to reduce cardio-vascular risk and improve mood.

Plantain is rich source of complex carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals, so are easily digestible.

It is good source of vitamin C, Vitamin B 6, Magnesium, Potassium. It is the best way to add fiber and carbohydrate in your diet.  

  1. Byproducts from Plantain

When the pulp of unripe plantain is sliced, dried and milled to make its product. Also, we can use plantain for making chips to improve its durability. Byproducts of plantain are:

  • Plantain flour: This plantain flour can be used to make Biscuits, cakes, Bread, Pan- Cakes as well as pudding.

  • Plantain Noodles and Pasta

Plantain can also be used to make plantain Pasta as well as Plantain noodles. Preparation of Plantain Pasta and Plantain noodles is almost similar. Generally green plantain is used to make pasta and noodles, because they have neutral taste then yellow ones. Yellow plantain is sweeter in taste.

For making noodles and pasta from plantain, firstly plantain is washed properly. After which it is boiled for 10 minutes. Post getting cooled, peels are removed from the plantain and send to the cutting section. It is then mashed and knead properly to make dough. This dough is then extruded to make noodles and pasta by using different dye.

  •  Plantain porridge

 Plantain contains good amount of essential nutrients to keep babies thieve and healthier. They contain ascorbic acid which is good for the eyesight of babies. Plantain also boosts the immune system of infants. Ripe plantain can easily be mashed up once cooked and then it can be fed alone or some other ingredients can be mixed to make plantain porridge.

  • Sanitary napkins

 Disposable sanitary napkins are made from Synthetic material and plastic, which takes many years to decompose. If we will burn this disposable napkin, then it emits very hazardous gas and carcinogenic fumes. This will cause air pollution and harm the environment. So, banana and papain are used to make natural sanitary napkins so that it can decompose easily. Banana fiber has excellent absorption properties and composite banana powder allows to make hygienic napkins.

Sparkle pads is an Indian brand of banana sanitary napkin, using locally sourced ingredients such as banana fiber, corn based bio- plastic etc.

  1. Reference


Cold Room Designing and Installation

  1. Introduction

PUF Panel are made of Polyurethane which is usually between two metal sheets. PUF panels are widely used in steel structures in the present day due to their various advantages.

Made as per required (thick in mm) and composite PUF sand the wall panels between Pre-Painted Galvanized Iron Sheet. PU foam of density as per your required of (40±2 kg/m3) as insulation. Pre-Painted Galvanized Iron Sheet shall have minimum coating of 4–5-micron epoxy primer and 25-micron polyester topcoat on the finish surface & 7–8-micron primer alkyl base on reverse.

History of PUF Panel – Polyurethane chemistry was first studied byte German chemist, Friedrich Bayer in 1937. From In 1940, the first polyurethane produced. These compounds gave millefleurs that could be used as an adequate alternative to rubber. When stretchable garments. Polyisocyanates became commercially available in 1952.

Chemistry Of PUF Panel – Polyurethanes, also known polycarbamate’s, belong to a larger class of compounds called polymers. Polyurethanes are characterized by carbamate groups (-NHCO2). A variety of raw materials are used to produce polyurethanes. These include monomers prepolymers

  1. Types of PUF Panel 
  • Single Groove: These are suitable for general purpose and application in buildings and shelters.
  • Double Groove: These are suitable for cold room and cold chamber applications, as groves helps in retaining the inside temperature via less heat transfer.




Single Groove                                                                                                                     Double Groove


  1. Production step for PUF Panel

3.1. De – Coiling System

Decoiling System is to feed the colour steel sheet (PPGI: Pre-Painted Galvanized Iron) to the sandwich panel production line continuously.

3.2. Roll Forming System

Rolling Forming System also spelled roll-forming is a type of rolling involving the continuous bending of a long strip of sheet metal.

3.3. Polyurethane Foaming System

Polyurethane Foaming System Polyurethane foams (often referred to as urethane foams) are prepared by the reaction of a Polyisocyanates with a polyol.

3.4. Double Belt Conveyor System

Double Belt Conveyor System transport system for the highly flexible inter linking of different production areas.

3.5. Cutting System

The cutting system is a machine that is used for separating materials. There by a variety of materials, such as aluminium, tin, wood, ceramics or plastics etc.

3.6. Cooling System

The cooling system is designed to load the panels in vertical position inside a conveyor system that allow an efficient heat dispersion.

3.7. Stacking System

Stacking system is to stack the cooled sandwich panels automatically with input quantity by operator. It can be manufactured as a vacuum pad type or a mechanical lifter type.

3.8. Wrapping System

The wrapping system as a last process in sandwich panel production line, it is necessary to prevent pollution on panel surface, rust at cut surface.

  1. Design Data of Cold Storage Room

4.1. Major component in cold storage room.

    1. Puf Panel – Polyutherane Foam Puf Panel
    2. Insulation Door: Can be sliding, swing or any type
    3. Refrigeration System – Indoor + Outdoor Unit.
    4. Electrical Panel to Control Refrigeration System
      • 7℃ to 25℃ (60 mm)
      • 0℃ to 7℃ (80 mm)
      • -15℃ to 0℃ (100 mm)
      • -30℃ to -15℃ (120 mm)
      • -40℃ to -30℃ (150 mm)

4.2. How the calculate refrigeration Capacity (Heat Load) of Storage Cold Room?.

To calculate the heat load first, following details shall be required

      1. Storage application or blast freezing application
      2. Room Size – Required Size (L x W x H)
      3. Required Room temperature
      4. H required for the product. (Relative Humidity)
      5. Product – Like, Milk and Milk Product, fruits, Vegetables, Meats Etc
      6. Product Quantity – Required total Quantity
      7. Puf Panel Thickness
      8. Ambient Temperature
      9. Daily Loading Quantity
      10. Product Incoming Temperature
      11. Pull Down Time (If Any)
      12. No of People working in the cold room.
      13. People working for how many hours in the cold room.


  1. Types of Cold Storage Room

5.1. Bulk Cold Storage Room

These stores are generally used for storing a single commodity that operates on a seasonal basis for example, stores for potatoes, apples, chillies, etc

5.2. Multi-Purpose Cold Storage Room

These are designed to store various commodities and products used throughout year and include different types of meat like lamb and chicken.

5.3. Frozen Food Storage Room

These food stores are design with processing and freezing facilities, optional for food items such as fish, meat, poultry, dairy products and processed food and vegetables. They are typically store around a temperature of -18C, most frozen food products are stored between 0 to minus 30ºF.

5.4. Mini Units / Walk-in Cold Storage Room

These are located at distribution centres. Walk-in cold stores can be utilised for multiple applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and beverages, dairy & other industries for all They have a temperature range of -18 C to -22 C.

  1. Installation of Cold Storage Room

6.1. Bottom C – Channel

C – Channel used for Bottom & roof panel consist of top trapezoidal sheet with light profile. It has easy to fit male and female panel are joint supported by in built C – Channel.

6.2. Wall Panel

PUF insulation panel for the used cold rooms. So not heat losses. Suitable for diverse application. Puf panel consists of a rigid core between two metal sheet structural boards.

6.3. L – Angle for Corner

L – Angle Corner are used for Both panels are supported. Angles are used in various construction. Angles are most commonly used steel.

6.4. Roof / ceiling Panel

Ceiling Puf panel are used for roof. Puf panel insulation between two metal sheets.

6.5. Silicon

Silicon sealant for leakproof construction and for strong bonding. And not losses for heat.

6.6. Evaporator Unit / Indoor Unit.

The evaporator coil is the component in your AC system that absorbs the heat from the air inside your home.

6.7. Condensate Unit / Outdoor Unit.

Condensate unit mean outdoor unit for the used cold room. This generates refrigeration media.

6.8. Indoor & Outdoor Unit Interconnection for Copper Pipe.

Indoor and outdoor unit interconnection copper pipe used for the refrigeration system media.

6.9. Electrical Panel with Cabling & Wiring

Electrical panel used for the control the indoor and outdoor unit and interconnection cables and wiring used the for electrical current pass for both units.


    1. Reference