Pasta is a food typically made from an unleavened wheat flour dough mixed with water or eggs and formed into sheets or other shapes. Many different cultures have eaten pasta over a large number of periods. Most Italian-type pasta is made from semolina, a grain product taken from the endosperm of durum wheat during milling.
Many different types of meals can be created with pasta. It tastes good and fills your stomach. Pasta as food represents an inexpensive means of improving diet quality in developed countries and helps to reduce hunger problems in developing countries. The unique combination of properties of cheapness, ease of preparation, versatility, nutritive value, and long shelf life will ensure that pasta will continue to play a role of importance as world demand for cereals increases.
Processing and extrusion of pasta
Pasta products are manufactured by mixing flour with water and other ingredients into the homogeneous dough and extruding this dough through a variety of dies.
Pasta processing consists of three main unit operations.
- Hydrating and mixing- kneading of semolina to make the dough (Formation of gluten network)
- Shaping the dough through extrusion
- Stabilizing the shaped pasta pieces, usually by using different dye
Equipment used for Pasta Processing
Most pasta is manufactured by continuous, high-capacity extruders, which operate on the auger extrusion principle in which kneading, and extrusion are performed in a single operation.
3.1 Powder Blender
Mixing formula ingredients is often carried out in mixer seems to have better mixing results in commercial noodle production.
The paddle design is generally employed where friable materials are being blended. Horizontal noodle dough mixer consists of several elements: a centrally mounted horizontal shaft that rotates within a cylindrical container, paddles, ploughs mixing elements that are attached to the centrally mounted shaft, special openings at the top for feeding materials, manually tilt able tank operated.
3.2. Rolling machine
The plate rolling machine is a type of metal forming machine which utilizes work rollers to produce sheet metal round processing and forming. The plate rolling machine is also known by plate bending roller. Rolling machine is used to roll the dough into thin sheets. Rolling machine helps to provide pasta of good texture
3.3 Extrusion machine or slitter machine
Inside the Extruder, the material is compacted, compressed as it moves forward towards the die. This occurs because the material is picked by rotating screw inside a stationery barrel which has grooves on its internal surface.
The grooves enable the sticky, plastic mass to move forward and mix thoroughly under controlled shear and temperature. Teflon dies tend to have too smooth surface and produce slippery pasta with too smooth surface and sauces do not adhere easily to such product.
3.4 Drying machine
In the Drier Machine, the product is dried under controlled humidity so that drying is neither too slow nor too fast. Too slow drying of product will damage the product as the product is rendered sticky or moldy. Too fast drying will crack the pasta. It might be necessary to ascertain and control different drying times for different product to get optimal results.
A properly extruded and dried pasta product would be firm, but flexible enough to be bent to considerable degree before cracking. In general, product retains about 10% moisture after drying.
3.5 Cooling and Packaging
Before packing, it might be essential to cool the pasta coming out from the main dryer. After drying pasta is then collected into cooling drum, where the machine adjusted to a programmed temperature. After sealing pasta move into a spiral freezer where they are Individually Quick Frozen at -45 degrees centigrade.
This is generally done by belt conveyors and cooling fans to remove the excess heat before final packing. Ideally, pasta should have no more than 10% moisture before packing to prevent mold growth.
Types of Pasta
Pasta has become one of the most common foods in the Indian kitchens. Pasta is categorized in different types according to their shapes and sizes. There are different types of pasta available in market in which some of them are mentioned below. Following are some types of pasta available in market.
Pasta is one of the most favorite foods for all age groups. Basic ingredients for the manufacturing of pasta which is typically used are flour, eggs, salts, and water. There are more than 300 types of pasta available in market based on their shapes and sizes, in which penne, spaghetti, farfalle is most commonly used. Pasta can be cooked by adding more and more vegetables in it or it can be consumed with sauces.