Pasta Processing and their types

  1. Introduction

Pasta is a food typically made from an unleavened wheat flour dough mixed with water or eggs and formed into sheets or other shapes. Many different cultures have eaten pasta over a large number of periods. Most Italian-type pasta is made from semolina, a grain product taken from the endosperm of durum wheat during milling.

Many different types of meals can be created with pasta. It tastes good and fills your stomach. Pasta as food represents an inexpensive means of improving diet quality in developed countries and helps to reduce hunger problems in developing countries. The unique combination of properties of cheapness, ease of preparation, versatility, nutritive value, and long shelf life will ensure that pasta will continue to play a role of importance as world demand for cereals increases. 

  1. Processing and extrusion of pasta

Pasta products are manufactured by mixing flour with water and other ingredients into the homogeneous dough and extruding this dough through a variety of dies.

Pasta processing consists of three main unit operations.

  • Hydrating and mixing- kneading of semolina to make the dough (Formation of gluten network)
  • Shaping the dough through extrusion
  • Stabilizing the shaped pasta pieces, usually by using different dye



  1. Equipment used for Pasta Processing

Most pasta is manufactured by continuous, high-capacity extruders, which operate on the auger extrusion principle in which kneading, and extrusion are performed in a single operation.

3.1 Powder Blender

Mixing formula ingredients is often carried out in mixer seems to have better mixing results in commercial noodle production.


The paddle design is generally employed where friable materials are being blended. Horizontal noodle dough mixer consists of several elements: a centrally mounted horizontal shaft that rotates within a cylindrical container, paddles, ploughs mixing elements that are attached to the centrally mounted shaft, special openings at the top for feeding materials, manually tilt able tank operated.

  3.2. Rolling machine

The plate rolling machine is a type of metal forming machine which utilizes work rollers to produce sheet metal round processing and forming. The plate rolling machine is also known by plate bending roller. Rolling machine is used to roll the dough into thin sheets. Rolling machine helps to provide pasta of good texture


3.3 Extrusion machine or slitter machine

Inside the Extruder, the material is compacted, compressed as it moves forward towards the die. This occurs because the material is picked by rotating screw inside a stationery barrel which has grooves on its internal surface.

The grooves enable the sticky, plastic mass to move forward and mix thoroughly under controlled shear and temperature. Teflon dies tend to have too smooth surface and produce slippery pasta with too smooth surface and sauces do not adhere easily to such product.

 3.4   Drying machine

In the Drier Machine, the product is dried under controlled humidity so that drying is neither too slow nor too fast. Too slow drying of product will damage the product as the product is rendered sticky or moldy. Too fast drying will crack the pasta. It might be necessary to ascertain and control different drying times for different product to get optimal results.

A properly extruded and dried pasta product would be firm, but flexible enough to be bent to considerable degree before cracking. In general, product retains about 10% moisture after drying.

3.5   Cooling and Packaging

Before packing, it might be essential to cool the pasta coming out from the main dryer.  After drying pasta is then collected into cooling drum, where the machine adjusted to a programmed temperature. After sealing pasta move into a spiral freezer where they are Individually Quick Frozen at -45 degrees centigrade.

This is generally done by belt conveyors and cooling fans to remove the excess heat before final packing. Ideally, pasta should have no more than 10% moisture before packing to prevent mold growth.

  1. Types of Pasta

Pasta has become one of the most common foods in the Indian kitchens. Pasta is categorized in different types according to their shapes and sizes. There are different types of pasta available in market in which some of them are mentioned below.  Following are some types of pasta available in market.

Pasta is one of the most favorite foods for all age groups. Basic ingredients for the manufacturing of pasta which is typically used are flour, eggs, salts, and water. There are more than 300 types of pasta available in market based on their shapes and sizes, in which penne, spaghetti, farfalle is most commonly used. Pasta can be cooked by adding more and more vegetables in it or it can be consumed with sauces.

  1. Reference


Enzymes In flour: And its Baking Application

  1. Introduction

Enzymes are proteins that act as biological catalysts. Catalysts are generally used to     accelerate the chemical reaction. An enzyme is a substance that acts as a catalyst in the living organism to regulate the rate of chemical reactions. Almost all proteins are enzymes, but all enzymes are not proteins. It helps to boost metabolism.

Enzymes are a kind of catalyst that can work within mild conditions of temperature, and pH and carry out chemical reactions at a high rate. Some enzymes are active without co- enzymes, but some are not. So, the types of enzymes that are inactive in the absence of its co-enzyme is called apoenzyme and enzymes that produce the active form of enzyme, in the presence of co- enzyme is called holoenzyme.


Apoenzymes + Co-enzymes           ⇒           Holoenzymes


  1. Types of Enzymes in Flour

Enzymes are usually added to modify dough rheology, gas retention, and crumb softness in bread manufacture. Enzymes used in bakery products to facilitate chemical reactions without undergoing any chance in their molecular structure.

Following are the types of enzymes present in flour:

                      2.1 Diastase/ Amylase

Diastase breaks and converts it into malt sugar. Diastase or Amylase is destroyed at 77    degrees centigrade. The amount of diastase in grain varies from year to year, depending on harvest conditions.

                     2.2 Protease

Protease is found in flour but also in malt and yeast. Proteins that cannot be dissolved in water can be converted by protease into another form. Due to presence of gluten, the dough becomes more elastic and softer and produces amino acids. Protease starts to work immediately after the dough is mixed.  It is mostly used to produce pan bread, cracker, wafer, and biscuits.

                      2.3 Lipoxygenases

Lipoxygenases is present in soy- flour, also has an oxidative effect on the gluten.

                      2.4 Hemicellulose, Pentosanes and Xylanases

Wheat flour contains about 2-3% pentosans that can bind up to 10 times of their weight of water. These pentosans belongs to the category of hemicelluloses.

  1. Application of Enzyme in Baking

Enzymes as technological aids are usually added to flour, during the mixing step of the bread-making process. The enzymes most frequently used in bread-making are the α-amylases from different origin.

Amylases and other starch-converting enzymes. The industrial processing of starch is usually started by α-amylases. Following are the enzymes added to the flour to enhance their processing and some other purposes.


There are various types of enzymes used in baking industries. Some of the enzymes are already present in different flours but for baking some enzymes are generally added for different purposes.

Following are the enzymes added to the flour during baking


 3.1 Maltase

Maltase is used to standardize the alpha amylase activity to most bread flour. Malted wheat or barley flour is added at the bakery.


3.2 Lipoxygenase

Lipoxygenases are present in soy flour that oxidizes the fat in flour to form peroxidases. Peroxidases bleach the flour pigments which result in crumb color.

3.3 Fungal Amylase

It is used to standardize the alpha amylase activity of bread flour. Fungal amylase is commonly used in dough conditioning.

3.4 Protease

Protease breaks down the gluten protein in wheat flour. For bread making this can improve gas retention, but with a tradeoff for less tolerance. 

3.5 Transglutaminase

Transglutaminase creates links between gluten molecules and strengthens the dough.

  1. Primary enzymes used for baking

 4.1 Enhance dough retention capacity and softness of the dough

Enzymes can be added to reduce mixing time, to decrease dough consistency, to assure dough uniformity, to regulate gluten strength in bread, to control bread texture and to improve flavor.

4.2 Modifiers of dough handling properties

Extra enzymes added to the dough improve control of the baking process, allowing the use of different baking processes, reducing process time. 

4.3 Dough strengthener

The main function of dough strengthener is it works like an emulsifier by bonding with proteins and help to improve the gluten strength. They are added to the dough to improve texture, symmetry, volume, etc. of the bakery product. 

4.4 Crumb softeners (anti-staling agents)

Enzymes are also used to delay the staling process, to reduce waste and ease pressure within the supply chain.

5. References



Noodles : Types of Flour and Manufacturing

  1. Introduction

 Noodles are staple foods in many regions of the world. Instant noodles were born and manufactured by Nissin Foods, in Japan, in 1958. It is made from an unleavened dough that is rolled flat and cut stretched, or extruded into long strips or of different shapes. Noodles are a long, thin pieces of food made from a mixture of flour, water, and eggs. Most noodle types share the typical processing steps of mixing ingredients, kneading, rolling, or sheeting the dough, and cutting it into pieces. Noodles are usually consumed in wet, boiled, steamed, or fried form.

Noodles is produced in over 80 countries worldwide. It is one of the most important staple foods in Asia. Asian noodles are evolved into various types and forms. Noodles or pasta are made from very simple formulas. Noodles manufactured in United States use eggs, but in other parts of the world, egg is not a required ingredient, in place of eggs, salt is used everywhere.

Noodles is a food represents an inexpensive means of improving diet quality in developed countries and helps to reduce hunger problems in developing countries. For the manufacturing of noodles, generally Durum wheat is used.

  1. Types of flour used for making Noodles 

Noodles are most versatile food items in the world. We can eat noodles either with vegetables or on their own. Noodles can be consumed with sauces to enhance their taste and it can also be consumed with lots of vegetables to enhance their nutritional value.

For making noodles, five basic ingredients are used: Water, Salt, eggs, oil, and the very important ingredient is flour. Different kinds of flour are used for making noodles for health, taste, and texture reasons. Following are the flour generally used for manufacturing of noodles.

2.1 All-purpose flour

All-purpose flour is the most common flour used for making different kinds of dishes. Just like the name suggests, it is good to use for all purposes. Benefits of using all-purpose flour is, its texture, color, and elasticity.

2.2 Semolina flour

Semolina is referred to as Noodle or Pasta flour because of its coarser texture. Semolina has very high gluten content which helps in binding and gives its firm texture. But the disadvantage of semolina flour for Gluten intolerant people can’t consume noodle made from Semolina flour. 

2.3 Whole wheat flour

Whole wheat flour is the ingredient which is mostly used for noodle manufacturing. This flour adds texture and nutrition along with this it is a healthier option, being less refined and containing lower carbs than other flour.  Wheat flour contains less calories than other refined kind of Noodles.



Wheat noodles are manufactured by mixing durum wheat flour, water, and salt. For making wheat noodles, wheat flour is the main ingredients, and their appearance and texture strongly depends on flour characteristics. Swelling and gelatinization characteristics of wheat flour determine whether the surface of noodles is sticky or hard.

2.4 Corn Flour

Corn flour is gluten free flour so, it is a good option for gluten intolerant patient. The noodles made up of corn flour has distinct taste of corn, also it creates a slightly grainer texture than wheat noodles. Corn- flour can be used for noodles making by mixing with other flour also.

2.5 Quinoa flour

Quinoa flour is the best flour made by grinding the grains into powder. It is the best flour because this flour all the health benefits including high protein, high fiber, low glycemic index, which is good for controlling blood sugar level.

2.6 Buckwheat flour

Buckwheat is like whole grain, but the main difference is that it is gluten- free. It is popular ingredient because of its nutritional value, it is high in minerals and antioxidants. The noodles made from this flour is basically chewy and grainy.

2.7 Rice Flour

Rice noodles have a long history. It can be used in different forms, such as, fresh dried, and instant noodles which provides variation by which rice is enjoyed in our diet. Rice is a staple food used all over the world. It delivers both benefits of gluten- free and low glycemic index.

2.8 Plantain Flour

Plantain is basically a variety of banana which is hybrid of two species, i.e., Musa acuminata and Musa balbiciana. The botanical name of plantain is Musa paradiciaca. Mature green plantain was processed into plantain flour. Plantain flour is made by peeling, washing, slicing, drying, and grinding of green plantain.

Instant noodles are classified into two types based on methods used for removal of moisture.

  1. Instant dried noodles
  2. Instant fried noodles

In dried noodles, the moisture of noodles is removed by the process of hot air drying to decrease the moisture content to about 8 – 12 %. Frying the noodles decreases the moisture content to about 2-5 %. But the disadvantage of frying is it contains about 15-20% oil. So, this is more susceptible to oxidation resulting in rancidity and have health issues due to higher oil and fat content.

There are different types of noodles present in market based on brands, in which Maggi -2-minute Noodles is most popular brand of instant Noodles in India. Because of busy lifestyle, easy to cook food is the need of the adults now-a-days. Eating nutritious food, incorporating physical activities and good taste is the key to maintain the healthy lifestyle.    

  1. Manufacturing of noodles

Noodle manufacturing comprises of mixing of raw materials, resting the dough, sheeting the dough into sheets, and gradually sheeting the dough into specified thickness and slitting into noodle strands.

For instant noodle preparation, strands are steamed and dehydrated by drying or frying followed by cooling and packaging. These are the following steps followed for the manufacturing of noodles:

3.1 Mixing and kneading                                                             

As a first step, the wheat flour made up of durum wheat goes into the mixing machine. Then, dough is kneaded with water at room temperature of about 20 to 30 degrees centigrade. Kneading machine mixes the ingredients slowly without causing friction or heating the dough. In more automated industrial process, kneading is made inside vats with a single rotating shaft for 15 to 20 minutes with a speed between 29 to 100 revolution per minute.

3.2 Roller belt

After mixing and kneading the dough it goes into rotating rollers to form sheets. This roller belt helps to distribute the noodles evenly. Then we leave the dough for a specific time to mature. As after rolling the thickness of roller reduces about 1 mm to 1.5 mm. This machine is suitable to produce flat pasta such as lasagna, Fettuccine, and Spaghetti.

3.3 Cutter/ Slitter Machine

Slitter machine is also named as Noodle cutter. It is a type of cutter which can slit dough sheets into noodles. Noodle cutting is the final procedure in noodle manufacturing, so it plays a crucial role. With the help of slitter these instant noodles are made even thinner. Slitter cut the noodles in strand generally of about 2 inches wide and 13 inches long.

3.4 Steaming Machine

Steaming of noodles can be done for around 4 to 5 minutes at 100 degrees centigrade. Steamed noodles are partially cooked by treating fresh noodles with either saturated or unsaturated steam before they are marketed. Steamed noodles are prepared using a semi-automatic steamer.

3.5. Dehydration process

After steaming, most of the noodles are dehydrated either by oil frying or by air drying, thus fried or un- fried noodles is formed. Drying of noodle is very important and risky process because when the noodle is too dried it will break down and if it is dried too slowly it will spoil.

3.6 Cooling

After steaming the noodles, it should be goes through the cooling machine for further cooling of noodles. It should be kept in cooling machine for 4-5 minutes.

3.7. Packaging

The dried and cooled noodles are then put into firm bags and containers as required and then it is used for packaging. The instant noodles can also be garnished and packed into plastic bags. Then the packed noodles can be transported in market for sale.

  1. Shelf life of Noodle

Shelf life of noodles depends on various factors like best-by-date, preparation method and how it was stored. Shelf life of dry pasta is roughly about 1 to 2 years and cooked or processed noodles is about 4 to 5 days in freezer and 1 week in refrigerator. 

  1. Nutritional benefits of Noodles

Noodles are generally very low in calorie and fiber. It is a good source of energy. Noodles can help with stomach problems, and it may help lower cholesterol. Cooked noodles contain 34% carbohydrate, 6% protein, low amount of fat with moderate amount of manganese.

5.1 Sustained Energy

Cooked noodles provide 34% carbohydrates which is a crucial fuel for our brain and muscle. It releases energy in a slow and sustained level. It is consumed by the players before playing to enhance their energy level.

5.2 Low sodium and cholesterol free

The amount of sodium is very low in noodles, and it is cholesterol free.  It helps with stomach problems. Noodles is a good source of several essential nutrients including iron and B- vitamin.

Noodles contain 6% protein and low amount of fat. It is a good source of complex carbohydrate. It can be consumed to enhance calorie. Noodles can be combined with vegetables for a complete meal that puts you well on the path of hitting dietary goals.

  1. Reference


Plantain- An Introduction

  1. Introduction


Plantain belongs to monocotyledonous family, Genus Musa and its botanical name is Musa paradiciaca. Plantain is a staple food grown throughout the tropical and subtropical region. It is ubiquitous in India so it is available throughout the year. It is major source of carbohydrate, vitamins and minerals.

Plantain is highly perishable. It possesses wide variety o f flavors. It can either be used for the domestic consumptions as well as it is used for making Plantain flour, Biscuits, cakes, Bread, Pan-cakes etc. It is a cheap source of iron, protein and Vitamin A.

Plantain has nutritional as well as medicinal values. It can be used for the treatment of diabetes, sore- throat, diarrhea, vomiting, apart from that it is major diet in the production of soyamusa which can be used in the treatment of kwashiorkor.

Plantain can be used as a substitute for wheat flour, cassava flour and all purpose flour, so that it is beneficial especially for diabetic patients. Plantain can be converted into flour and chips to improve its durability. It is also used to make infant foods like plantain porridge. According to FAO more than 2.5 million metric tons of plantains are produced in Nigeria annually.

Plantains are tougher and starchier than banana, also it has thicker, and harder skin compared to banana. Plantain and Banana are genetically similar but primarily we can eat plantain after cooking.

  1. Types of plantain

Plantain grows just like banana, in bunches called “hands”. The trees may vary in size from 12- 15 feet to 25- 30 feet tall with huge broad leaves. Plantain is called as Kaccha kela in India, Dodo in Western Nigeria and Sagging Saba in Philippines.

Plantain can be found in four varieties, based on their bunch:

  • French Plantain
  • French horn
  • False horn
  • Horn Plantain

Both types of plantain grow in India, Africa, Egypt and Tropical America, but French plantain also found in Indonesia and Islands of the Pacific.

  1. Health Benefits of Plantain

Plantain is very beneficial for our health. Plantain is good source of Vitamin A, C and B- 6 and the mineral, magnesium and potassium.

  • Antioxidant

Plantain is rich in Vitamin C which acts as an antioxidant. Antioxidant helps in boosting our immune system. Protects your body from free radical damage that associated with aging, heart disease, and even some types of cancer.

  • Potassium

Plantain contains high amount of potassium which is essential for maintaining cells, regulates body electrolytes and the body fluid that controls our heart rate and blood pressure.

  • Fiber

Plantain contains Fiber which helps in lowering our cholesterol level, achieves optimal digestion and keeps your heart functioning properly.

  • Vitamin B 6 content

Plantain contains good amount of Vitamin B 6 which helps to reduce cardio-vascular risk and improve mood.

Plantain is rich source of complex carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals, so are easily digestible.

It is good source of vitamin C, Vitamin B 6, Magnesium, Potassium. It is the best way to add fiber and carbohydrate in your diet.  

  1. Byproducts from Plantain

When the pulp of unripe plantain is sliced, dried and milled to make its product. Also, we can use plantain for making chips to improve its durability. Byproducts of plantain are:

  • Plantain flour: This plantain flour can be used to make Biscuits, cakes, Bread, Pan- Cakes as well as pudding.

  • Plantain Noodles and Pasta

Plantain can also be used to make plantain Pasta as well as Plantain noodles. Preparation of Plantain Pasta and Plantain noodles is almost similar. Generally green plantain is used to make pasta and noodles, because they have neutral taste then yellow ones. Yellow plantain is sweeter in taste.

For making noodles and pasta from plantain, firstly plantain is washed properly. After which it is boiled for 10 minutes. Post getting cooled, peels are removed from the plantain and send to the cutting section. It is then mashed and knead properly to make dough. This dough is then extruded to make noodles and pasta by using different dye.

  •  Plantain porridge

 Plantain contains good amount of essential nutrients to keep babies thieve and healthier. They contain ascorbic acid which is good for the eyesight of babies. Plantain also boosts the immune system of infants. Ripe plantain can easily be mashed up once cooked and then it can be fed alone or some other ingredients can be mixed to make plantain porridge.

  • Sanitary napkins

 Disposable sanitary napkins are made from Synthetic material and plastic, which takes many years to decompose. If we will burn this disposable napkin, then it emits very hazardous gas and carcinogenic fumes. This will cause air pollution and harm the environment. So, banana and papain are used to make natural sanitary napkins so that it can decompose easily. Banana fiber has excellent absorption properties and composite banana powder allows to make hygienic napkins.

Sparkle pads is an Indian brand of banana sanitary napkin, using locally sourced ingredients such as banana fiber, corn based bio- plastic etc.

  1. Reference